The 1972 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Public Service
BIOGRAPHY of Cecile Reyes Guidote
Raised by her mother, Caridad Reyes Guidote, a nurse, CECILE attended St. Theresa's in Quezon City from which she graduated in 1958 as valedictorian of her high school class. In 1962 she received her Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science in Education, summa cum laude, from St. Paul College of Manila, and was named one of the Ten Outstanding Students of the Year. She early found theater to be her true metier and participated enthusiastically in school and college plays. She was a consistent "gold-medalist" in dramatics, leadership and scholarship, and was recipient of both a SEATO (Southeast Asian Treaty Organization) undergraduate scholarship and a graduate scholarship to the Ateneo Graduate School Drama Workshop.
From the beginning of her career she was engaged in all aspects of the art form of drama. While still at St. Paul's she created, produced and directed Teenagers, a live weekly drama series for television. In Pilipino (the national language based primarily on Tagalog, the dialect of the Manila area and Central Luzon), it aimed at constructively utilizing the energies of youth as a positive alternative to juvenile delinquency. In its second year the show received the commendation of the Mayor of Manila and the President of the Philippines, and was granted the first Citizens Award for Television as the best dramatic anthology.
After graduation GUIDOTE taught drama and English in the high school section of St. Paul's for two years, and was Moderator of the Paulinian Player's Guild, one of the notable college theater groups in Manila. She continued to act, appearing in St. Paul and Ateneo University productions, and in the Arena Theater which had been established in 1953 by Severino Montano whose goal was to create a "grassroots" national theater and who was supported in this attempt for nine years by the Rockefeller Foundation. Her own interest in a national theater was intensified by this contact. She also continued to appear on radio and TV (in Family Theater and Santa Zita) and served as Executive Secretary and Production Manager to Father James B. Reuter, Director of the National Office of Radio and Television and producer of Family Theater.
In 1964 she applied for and received a Fulbright travel grant to enable her to attend the State of New York in Albany where she had been accepted in graduate status. While there she served as production assistant for Schigal's Typists and Marlow's Dr. Faustus, but the theater program of this university proved inadequate to one of her background and experience. She turned to The JDR3rd Fund (founded by John D. Rockefeller 3rd) for help in transferring to the Master of Arts program at the Dallas Theater Center, one of the best repertory theater schools in the United States. She sought to study theater in all its forms and to develop her ideas for creating a national theater in the Philippines which would serve all segments of society.
Supporting her request for aid was a letter from Edward Mattos, U.S. Cultural Of Officer in Manila, who wrote: "Reading the outline of her project reinforces my personal estimation of her innate practical, good sense. . . . I believe that her concept is a good one, based upon fact and proper purpose. Unlike so many projects advanced in this direction, Miss GUIDOTE proposes to begin with the seed, not the harvest. She is conscious of the harvest which demonstrates her imagination, but is too aware of the Philippine situation to begin with the ideal."
The JDR3rd Fund granted GUIDOTE a full fellowship to study in Dallas for two years and in addition gave her a travel allowance to observe theater in other areas of the United States, Mexico and Europe. She maintained an excellent record at Dallas where she worked under Paul Baker, and "contributed significantly to the acting and directing programs of the Theater Center." She played leading roles in the Trojan women, Oh Dad, Poor Dad, Rashomon, Tennessee Williams' This Property is Condemned and Shakespeare's Julius Caesar and The Tempest; she directed John Logan's My Brother's Keeper. She was one of the actors selected to tour the Southwest with the Dallas troupe and to play in the inaugural performance of the Globe Theater in Odessa, Texas.
While at Dallas she made personal contact with American theatrical personages such as Rosamund Gilder, Honorary President of the International Theater Institute (ITI) and President of the American Center of the ITI, and Helen Hayes, doyenne of American dramatic artists. Both have since visited the Philippines under the sponsorship of the Philippine Educational Theater Association (PETA), an organization GUIDOTE was to establish on her return. Most importantly she wrote her 300-page thesis entitled Prospectus for the National Theater of the Philippines.
When she returned to Manila in January 1967 GUIDOTE presented her thesis to the National Office of. Radio and Television, the Citizens Council for Mass Media and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)-Philippines, which were "astounded by the monumental work" and agreed to sponsor her program for a national theater. Her ideas were also endorsed by the Association of Christian Schools and Colleges, the Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities, the Catholic Education Association of the Philippines and the Pontifical Commission for Social Communications. Local theater people, jealous of their organizations, were less enthusiastic.
In the first months of 1967, while her ideas were being mulled over, she conducted a two-week acting and interpretive reading workshop for high school and college students of St. Paul's in Dumaguete, Negros Oriental, and directed two plays, White Iris and Ladies in Retirement.
When asked in later years why she chose theater as a career, explained: "Because it is an area in our cultural life not yet substantially explored and seen as a definite field which can be a dynamic tool for education and social development. Theater, when promoted, guided and made relevant to the country's needs can establish national identity. It can produce not only national and regional understanding (in our case the SEA area) but international as well."
The Philippine Educational Theater Association was established by GUIDOTE in 1967 as the organizational basis for a national theater. As Mattos had noted,"If there is any hope for professional theater in the Philippines it will have to come out of an educational center." Of this GUIDOTE was well aware. In building on educational theater she hoped to coordinate school and community theater, individuals, and private and governmental institutions in support of theater at all levels of society and in all parts of the islands.
The history of theater in the Philippines goes back to early Spanish days when friars, in an effort to spread Christianity in an area where Islam had already made inroads, introduced the moro-moro, a play depicting conflict between Muslims and Christians, in which the Christians were always victorious. Growing out of the moro-moro, in a later era, was the zarzuela, a musical melodrama enacted in the local language during town fiestas. It included dances, songs and slapstick, and later became a medium of anti-Spanish satire. Its sharp wit was used against the Americans in turn, and then against the abuses of society. In the 1920s vaudeville, and in the 1930s movies, supplanted the zarzuela in popularity.
When the Japanese occupied the Philippines during World War II and banned production of local films and importation of foreign ones, theater staged a comeback. In Manila the Barangay Theater Guild, formed in 1939, used Tagalog and satire to help the citizenry maintain a strong national consciousness and withstand the Japanese occupation. With liberation and independence, movies returned and theater was left to amateur drama groups, particularly in the colleges. Among the latter the Ateneo Players Guild, the University of the Philippines Dramatic Club and the Paulinian Players Guild had strong directors and offered consistently high fare. These were the groups upon which GUIDOTE was to base her efforts.
The Preamble of PETA states that theater should be "not just a place for public entertainment nor a forum for intellectual debate, but a stream where flows the country's heritage, enriched by the current of contemporary thought, concepts, and beliefs." To achieve this ideal PETA would endeavor to "foster and encourage the educational aspects of theater; promote and develop high standards in all phases of theater through trained leadership; provide the meeting ground for school and community theater workers at all levels; and encourage cooperation among theater groups in cities, provinces and regional centers throughout the Philippines." Its first board of trustees, which determines policy and makes recommendations, included leading figures in Philippine theater and education such as Reuter, Alejandro R. Roces, Luis Nepomuceno, Alberto Florentino, Anthony Morli and Onofre Pagsanjan.
PETA's four internal divisions are: Children's Theater; Secondary School Theater; College and University Theater and Community Theater. Each has its own operations and programs. PETA has formed regional councils as well and has chosen liaison officers for eight regions: Greater Manila, Northern, Central and Southern Luzon, the Eastern and Western Visayas, and Northern and Southern Mindanao. It is a non-sectarian, non-profit, non-stock issuing organization which receives no regular government financial aid. Three American foundations have provided funding, primarily the Asia Foundation which gave it considerable help in the beginning and which has continued to be its mainstay. The JDR3rd Fund has made money available for participation in international conferences and to bring foreign experts to the Philippines and the Guggenheim Foundation has been supportive. UNESCO has given some assistance and the National Parks Development Committee, headed by Teodoro F. Valencia, has provided PETA with a headquarters and a theaterin the ruins of Fort Santiago.
PETA pays its performers whenever its ticket returns warrantunlike other Philippine theatrical organizationsbut GUIDOTE says that financing has been her most serious obstacle: "I am hounded by creditors and I don't know where next to get funds to pay them off." When organizations request PETA performances they must provide transport, food, lodging and a little pocket money. GUIDOTE herself draws no salary. Except for her teaching, she admits wryly, "I am supported by my mother."
Although she works without pay, GUIDOTE as Executive Director, is involved in all aspects of PETAtraining, production, administration, finance and international contacts. It has been said that GUIDOTE is PETA and PETA is GUIDOTE.
The services PETA offers its cooperating members fall into four categories: production, service and information, coordination and training. The Theater Production Program involves theater of all sorts, including religious and historical drama, folk theater, experimental theater, puppetry and youth theater. It also seeks to revitalize the zarzuela and make it again a meaningful vehicle of social criticism. As a step in this direction Halimaw (The Monster) was staged last year as a social commentary in zarzuela form.
The Service and Information Program seeks to make available to all interested parties information on recent worldwide developments in teaching and production techniques. It offers library resources, a speakers' bureau, a script service which hopes to make available all existing Filipino plays, and liaison with international theater groups. The Coordinating Program for Group Development encourages festivals, seminars and workshops wherein disparate groups can be brought together to discuss common problems and develop a national outlook.
The Training Program offers supplemental teaching and professional training in all aspects of theaterstage, radio and television. It has been institutionalized in CITAP, the Central Institute of Theater Arts in the Philippines, which is presently hosted by St. Paul College, Communication Arts Department of which GUIDOTE is chairman. GUIDOTE sees this as the beginning of a national theater school.
CITAP training is available for three age-groupings: children, youth, and adults and professionals. During the school year it operates through the school curricula. In the summer it offers a Summer Crash Program usually for eight weeks and primarily for youth and teachersin directing, acting, writing, stagecraft design, music, modern dance and, more recently, mask-making and oriental movements. It has been able to bring over foreign experts for this program, primarily through foreign or international assistance. To date these have included Randy Ford from the Dallas Theater Center; Brooks Jones from the American National Theatre Academy (who helped establish the Training Center for the Theater Arts, with emphasis on film and broadcasting, and assisted the Davao Social Action Center start "barbed-wire theater" for inmates of the Davao Penal Colony); Rolf Scharre, a German mime master; Ladislav Smocek, a Czech playwright and director; and Henry Popkin, an American theater critic.
The Sixth Summer Crash Program was offered this year from May 1 to 31. Eighty trainees, most of them on scholarships, attended from all parts of the country. The College of Education, University of Santo Tomas in Manila, was host to the program. In all, 1,000 professionals and nonprofessionals, children, youth and adults have been trained in such summer programs.
CITAP has also set up the Metropolitan Teen Theater League (MTTL) for children and teenagers. Teen Theater is particularly close to GUIDOTEs heart. "She feels strongly," Lorna M. Kalaw writes, "that children should be allowed unbridled freedom to express themselves and to give vent to their emotions. Too many children, she finds, are tragically inhibited and continue to be so even in their old age. She thinks of creative dramatics as 'a childlike way of world in which they live, to discover the friendliness of others, to discover the magic and love that are deep within their souls.'"
This year the MTTL is gathering musical and theater minded teenagers from schools all over Greater Manila "in a showcase [Banyuhay] wherein can express themselves fully and artistically through presentation of their own musical and literary compositions." PETA seeks not only to give them a means of expression but to train them as future actors and prepare them to be a discerning future audience. MTTL, in connection with the Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement and the Federation of Free Farmers, has established a Barrio Youth Summer Theater. Its purpose is to bring new ideas to barrios (villages) via drama and offer youth a constructive outlet for their creativeness and emotions. CITAP also has a mobile staff in the provinces that offers intensive training courses to backstop teachers.
CITAP established the Kalinangan Ensemble as its repertory company. GUIDOTE is intimately involved with the Ensemble as Producing Director and occasional performer. It has produced more than 50 plays, 90 percent of which have been Filipino plays or translations. Foreign plays when translated are usually cast in a Philippine setting and deal with Philippine mores and problems; PETA prefers, however, to support the original work of Filipino authors.
The Kalinangan Ensemble is perhaps the best known activity of PETA because it has received the backing of the National Parks Development Committee and stages its productions in the ruins of Fort Santiago, the Spanish fort within the walls of old Manila, which used to be known for the incarceration of political prisoners. Josť Rizal, the Philippines greatest writer-patriot, was interned there before his execution by the Spanish, so it is particularly fitting that this should be the scene of a resurgent nationalist movement. The major stage is the Rajah Soliman Theater where one-act one-peso (20 U.S. cents) ticket plays have been successfully staged for a working class audience. Known as the Twilight Series, performances begin at 5 p.m. to cater to those just leaving their shops and offices. Some of the actors are laborers in the Parks and Police departments. Four more stages have been made available by the Parks Committee, three at Fort Santiago: the Dungeon, the Powder Magazine Chamber and the lobby of the Rajah Soliman itself. The fourth is in another heavily populated area of Manila, Paco Park.
The Rajah Soliman was the idea of GUIDOTE and the design was carried out by noted Philippine architect Leandro Locsin. It utilizes an inner court of the fort and the ruined ramparts behind it. The whole theater is the stage. Lights come from the tops of the ruinslike light from the sky. Not only is this a theatrically exciting stage, but it shows how the most unlikely spaces can be adapted to the theater. GUIDOTE encourages other theater groups to be imaginative in the use of available space; in the barrios she suggests staging plays in the cockpits or village squares.
The Kalinangan was designated the official Philippine "Cultural Representative for 1972" by the Department of Foreign Affairs. It was the first theater group to be chosen to tour abroad. Scheduled to perform in Israel, Athens, Rome, Warsaw, New York, Dallas and Los Angeles, and to participate in the Salzburg Festival, it was literally "rained out." Two days before its scheduled departure heavy rains flooded central Luzon. The 20 members of the troupe voted unanimously to make available their travel and expense money for relief work, and to give up their long-planned, rehearsed and sacrificed-for tour, choosing to stand by their ideals of social commitment at whatever the personal cost.
One of the plays planned for presentation abroad was the highly successful Ai 'Dao. Ai 'Dao represents PETA's "debut to legitimate 'agit-prop theater,' " according to one newspaper critic, who saw it as an "act of consecration to Philippine theater and society." Others describe it as People's Theater, Protest Theater or Theater of the Absurd. According to Lourdes Y. Santos (whose thesis, The Philippine Theater, devotes about half its 70 pages to PETA), People's Theater prescribes action, Protest Theater and Theater of the Absurd thought. Ai 'Dao, she feels, calls forth the latter.
Ai 'Dao (It Hurts) was sponsored by the Voters Organization and Information for Civic Education (VOICE) in 1972 as a pilot play to encourage "continuing political education through the arts." As Executive Director of PETA and Cultural Chairman of VOICE, GUIDOTE produced, directed and has even acted in this play. Ai 'Dao seeks to develop dialogue with the Muslim community on Mindanao Island where there has been continuing armed dissent on the part of the Muslims, and military action on the part of the government. The story concerns the conflict between two datus (Muslim leaders), the political machinations at both local and national level by one, and the disenchantment at not finding justice in government courts and the resultant return to private vengeance under Islamic law by the other.
The play had the financial support of the Asia Foundation which underwrote the initial studies on Muslim culture, UNESCO-Philippines, Mindanao State University, the Commission on Elections and the Commission on National Integration. With so many "establishment" organizations supporting it, Ai 'Dao nevertheless remains true to its intent which is, as one critic sees it, to "heighten the awareness of some painful but objective truths in our society." Another comments, "If PETA continues producing plays like Ai 'Dao, the day is not far when the theater will again be the conscience of our nation." Roces adds that the play is "more revealing than any congressional investigation or any on-the-spot journalist report."
Ai 'Dao was conceived as a "multi-level" production embracing other audio-visual methods, including a poster and comics exhibit and audience dialogue at the end of each performance. GUIDOTE hopes to stage like productions based on each of the nine major issues to be raised at the Constitutional Convention on which VOICE has prepared primers, and she plans to distribute the scripts to volunteer dramatic groups for nationwide usage.
In a similar educative vein, GUIDOTE as Production Consultant for the Population Information and Education Office of the Population Commission, is producing Itay, Kain Na Tayo (Father, Let's Eat). The play deals with pressures that arise in coping with the problems of a large family and their effect on an otherwise happy marriage. In Kalbaryo PETA is experimenting with Living Theater, theater in which the audience becomes part of the performance and the spectator is a "creative participant who can identify himself and view the world in terms of his own interest." Kalbaryo adapted by Brooks Jones from Yeats' Calvary, poses the question: What would it mean to you if Christ walked the streets of your town on Good Friday this year?
PETA does not limit itself to the stage but is also active in radio and television. It produces Playhouse of the Air, a half hour English language drama heard on commercial radio every week, and Balintataw, a one hour weekly TV play in Pilipino which draws upon the best of Philippine writing. Completing its fifth year on television in 1972, the latter has received the honor roll award as five-time recipient of the Citizens Award for Television. The more than 200 original plays, stories and adaptations by local writers have dealt with inspiring biographies, historical events and now issues for consideration by the forthcoming Constitutional Convention. Balintataw was recently transferred from television to radio, in part to reach a wider audience, and in part to make way for a new PETA television series, Ito Ang Pilipino (This Is The Filipino), based upon somewhat the same format.
For these various works GUIDOTE received the Soroptimist "Joy of Achievement Award" in May 1972. The Award reads: "for the promotion of cultural consciousness and deep awareness of our national heritage, through a program for the development and utilization of Filipino talents, particularly in the field of theater arts. . . . "
Three PETA projects have been instrumental in developing new Filipino authors, the Playwright's Development Program, the Historical Drama Contest and the National Drama Festival. Writers are encouraged to submit original manuscripts to the Playwright's Development Program which acts as a review board, offering constructive criticism and suggestions, and arranging for production of plays which meet the Program's standards. The Historical Drama Contest considers plays written in either English or Pilipino that deal with historical events or issues. The first prize is P1,000 plus 10 percent of gross receipts when the play is produced. The first winner was Virginia Moreno's Bayaning Hawad (Straw Patriot) which was presented by the Kalinangan at the Rajah Soliman Theater in 1967.
The National Drama Festival, held every three years, seeks to produce one-act plays in any Philippine dialect. Competitions are held in four geographic regions, the winners of which are chosen for a play-off. The first-prize winner becomes PETA's entry in international competitions. "Especially in these times," as Isagani R. Cruz writes, "when the Philippines needs to define her national identity, the production of local plays is an indispensable step in the cultural revolution."
The Script Service of PETA is another means of encouraging Philippine playwrights. By making available one-act plays in mimeograph form to schools and community groups at one peso per copy, it promotes their use throughout the islands and helps create nationwide author recognition.
PETA has held a yearly convention ever since its inaugural in April 1967. This first convention was attended by 128 schools, two drama groups, two seminaries, two civic and cultural organizations and several unattached but interested individuals; participants came from Ilocos Norte in northern Luzon to Cotabato in Mindanao. They became the founding core of PETA. National conventions are now held in March, the International Theater Month. From the beginning GUIDOTE has been instrumental in their planning, organization and success.
GUIDOTE has also actively participated in international conferences While she was studying in the United States she attended meetings of American theater groups in New York (1964), Miami (1965) and Dallas (1966). In 1967 she attended the 12th Congress of the International Theater Institute in New York and was the Philippine panelist at the Washington International Conference on Theater in the Educational Process. The same year she attended the ITI Colloquium on Theater Design in Canada. 1968 found her a guest speaker at the American Educational Theater Association (AETA) Conference in Los Angeles discussing "Developing Theater in Developing Countries."
In 1969 she attended the World Festival of Theater in Nancy, France, the 13th Congress of the ITI in Budapest and the 14th ITI Colloquium in Bucharest. From there she visited East Berlin as a special guest of the ITI Center and the Ministry of Culture of the German Democratic Republic. She also attended the UNESCO-ITT "Arab-Asian Round-Table Talks on the Arts" in Beirut. It was there she proposed that the Philippines host the First Third World Theater Festival, to tie in with the Fourth Centennial Celebration of the Philippines, in November 1971. Sponsored by PETA, UNESCO-Philippines and the Manila Fourth Centennial Committee, this Afro-Asian-Latin American festival, exhibition and conference sought to evaluate what exists in Third World theater and what needs to be done. Roces, who co-sponsored the proposal in Beirut, says this "was an international achievement for CECILE GUIDOTE, that took extraordinary vision, planning, dedication and work, to push through."
As a result of the Beirut Talks PETA was recognized as the Coordinating Secretariat for the Third World Committee of UNESCO-ITT. Its project is to develop an annual Afro-Asian Bulletin and a common forum to gain deeper insights into the spirit and character of the various Third World countries. Plans are currently underway for a meeting of the Committee in Bombay to plan for the next Third World Conference in 1973. GUIDOTE is deeply involved.
In a paper delivered at the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Social and Cultural Committee in January 1971, GUIDOTE proposed that a Central Institute of Theater Arts in Southeast Asia (CITASA) be formed. It would be financed by a common ASEAN fund and involve an exchange program "to provide a deeper acquaintance with the different ASEAN cultures through personal, direct, richly educational, artistic experience." She offered the staff of PETA to draw up the proposals and to serve as its board of trustees.
The "Statement of Purpose" in the Information Booklet prepared in 1971 states that CITASA "is primarily conceived as a training school for those who would work within the traditional theater forms of the Third World and who, at the same time, would infuse traditional theater with the spirit and techniques of modern theater and modern communications media. The CITASA shares the conviction of the International Theater Institute (ITI) and the Philippine Educational Theater Association (PETA) that theater is a potent force in the development of man and his world." The Central Institute of Theater Arts in the Philippines (CITAP) has now been expanded to include Southeast Asia as CITASA.
CITASA offers three graduate and three post-graduate degrees, all at St. Paul College in GUIDOTEs department of Communication Arts. A two-year secondary school program, and a children's course that leads to a Children's Certificate in Theater, is also being offered.
GUIDOTE and PETA's increasing interest in ASEAN drama stems, as she writes, from the "rediscovery of the Muslim heritage," in researching for Ai 'Dao, which "stimulated PETA to underline a national linkage with the broad body of Southeast Asian Theater traditions." It also stems from her attendance as a Philippine delegate at Indonesia's First Ramayana (Hindu dance-drama) Festival and Conference in September 1971. As a result she became interested in producing a Philippine Ramayana within the framework of the moro-moro. Soedarsono, Indonesian Ramayana expert, was brought to the Philippines to be consulted in planning this venture.
Further broadening her interest in Asian drama was her travel through the Peoples Republic of China as a member of the All Women Philippine Educational and Cultural Tour. This experience led her to plan for the adaptation to local conditions and zarzuela form the Chinese play Red Lantern. In this continuing search for greater awareness of and communications with other nations, PETA, with financial assistance from The JDR3rd Fund, brought Korean director Duk Hyung Yoo to the Philippines to experiment in a bi-national contemporary drama, Alamang (Meditation), which was presented at the Third World Festival.
Joseph C. Fitch, Chairman of Theater Arts, Montana State Universitywho delivered a paper devoted exclusively to GUIDOTEs role in Philippine theater at the 28th International Congress of Orientalists in Canberra, Australianotes that PETA, through GUIDOTE "has accomplished more in three years than AETA (its American counterpart) and the American National Theatre and Academy have been able to accomplish in over 30 years." Isagani R. Cruz, playwright and editor of A Short History of Theater in the Philippines, agrees. He writes, "All the efforts of the fifties . . . could not have been brought into fruition if the Philippine Educational Theater Association had not come into being. . . . The PETA incorporated all the contributions of Montano, Guerrero, Tinio, Reuter, the American oriented groups, and the Barangay Theater Guild and harnessed them towards the building of a national theater movement. In its emphasis on the provinces and mass media, PETA brought Montano's ideas to their logical end. In its emphasis on the writing of plays within a theater context, PETA developed Guerrero's original insight. In its drive for theater of high quality, PETA followed Tinio's early conviction. In its attempt to entertain while educating its audience, PETA amplified Reuter's contribution. In its attempt to have a repertory for its performing arm, PETA captured the MTG [Manila Theater Guild] ideal. Finally, in its expansion into the electronic media, PETA fulfilled what the Barangay Theater Guild wanted, but could never do. What the pioneers lacked was vision of theater and national development. GUIDOTE with single-minded drive, managed to weld all forces in theater in the country into a national theater organization. "
Former Minister of Education and Philippine UNESCO Commissioner Alejandro Roces, who has been involved with PETA since its inception, adds, "PETA has worked so that someday Filipinos will have not mere theater in the Philippines but a truly Filipino theater. We know of all the setbacks, the frustrations and disappointments that CECILE had to undergo in order to realize some of her plans for the development of Philippine theater. Suffice it to say that they were enough to have discouraged any other person."
Dalisay, Jose J. "A Filipino Theater," Manila Herald. May 7, 1972.
Espejo Tony S. "An Act of Consecration," Manila Chronicle. April 2, 1972.
"Festival of Martial Arts," Manila Evening News. January 13, 1972.
Fuantecilla, Corito G. "In Ai 'Dao, Local Color as Theater Form," Variety. Manila. June 4, 1972.
Guidote, Cecile R. Ai 'Dao (Playbill). Manila: PETA. Season 1972-1973. (Mimeographed.)
______. ASEAN Centers for Visual and Performing Arts, Proposed Activities. ASEAN Social and Cultural Committee, Central Institute of Theater Arts in Southeast Asia (CITASA): Philippine Panel, Manila. January 5-6, 1971. (Mimeographed)
______. Interview. June 28, 1972.
______. Methods for Continuing Political Education Through the Arts. Presented to Voters Organization and Information for Civic Education. Manila, 1971.
______. A Prospectus for the National Theater of the Philippines. (Unpublished thesis. Trinity University, Texas.) 1967.
______. "Towards a People's Theater," Impact. Manila. Vol. 4, no. 1, January 1969.
Information Booklet, Central Institute of Theater Arts in Southeast Asia (CITASA.) Manila: PETA. 1971.
"'Itay, Kin na Tayo'" to be Staged by Peta," Manila Bulletin. August 25, 1972.
Kalaw, Loma M. "Cecile's Thesis on Theater," Woman and Home. Manila. May 7, 1967.
"MTTL Presents 'Banyuhay'," Manila Chronicle. May 20, 1972.
"1972 Ramon Magsaysay Awardees for Public Service," Free World. Manila: U.S. Information Service. 1972.
Orosa, Rosalinda L. "Our Own Theater of Cruelty," Manila Chronicle. April 21, 1972.
______. "The Performing Arts, 1969: A Striving for Synthesis," 1969 Fookien Times
Yearbook. Manila: Fookien Times. 1969.
______. "The Performing Arts, 1970: A More Relevant Theater," 1970 Fookien Times Yearbook. Manila: Fookien Times. 1970.
"PETA Actors to Perform in Salzburg," Manila Chronicle. April 25, 1972.
"PETA to Hold Third Annual Theater Convention March 27-31," Manila Bulletin. March 10, 1969.
"PETA Repeats," Manila Times. May 31, 1972.
Preamble, Philippine Educational Theater Association. Manila: PETA.
Roces, Alejandro R. "Case of Petty Self-Interest," Manila Chronicle August 22, 1972.
______. "Cecile Guidote and the PETA," Manila Chronicle. January 15, 1971.
______. "Highly Deserving Honorees," Manila Chronicle. August 29, 1972.
______. "A Play of Our Era," Manila Chronicle. June 6, 1972.
Roces, Alfredo R. "Mass Media as a Tool," Manila Times. February 2, 1968.
Santos, Lourdes Y. The Philippine Theater. (Mimeographed Thesis) July 1972.
"Soroptimist Awards for Two Members," Manila Bulletin. May 31, 1972.
"Theater Workshop Starts Today," Manila Chronicle. May 1, 1972.
"Towards a Living, " Mirror. Manila March 8, 1969.
"VOICE Okays Plans for Educational Drive, " Manila Times. June 15, 1972.
Interviews with and letters from those knowledgeable about Cecile Guidote, PETA and its
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