SOMBHU MITRA was born in Calcutta,
India, on August 22,1915, the sixth child of three sons and four daughters
born to Sarat Kumar Mitra, an employee of the Geological Survey of India,
and Satadalbasini Mitra. His mother died when he was 12 years old. MITRA
remembers his father as a silent man—as his father had been before him.
Under his father's strict upbringing he and his siblings were forbidden even
to attend a theater. However, while a schoolboy in Calcutta at the
Chakraberia Middle English School and the Ballygunge Government School,
SOMBHU read plays written in Bengali and was active in school dramatics. It
was not until he started college in 1931 at St. Xavier's in Calcutta that he
was able, surreptitiously, to attend the theater.
In later years, MITRA says, he has mused about why with this background, he
chose the theater for his profession. He does not recall feeling rebellious
about his father's embargo for he had school dramatics and in college found
ways to attend the theater. Neither does the pleasure he took in
participating in school plays and seeing a few others seem to have been an
overriding impulse. Unable to think of an event, a person "or even an idea"
which led him to make this choice he puts it down to an instinct he cannot
MITRA began his acting career in 1939 at the age of 24 at the Rungmahal
Theater in Calcutta, and moved from there to the Minerva, Natyaniketan and
Srirangam theaters. During the early days of his career he came into contact
or acted with many of India's finest performers—Sisir Kumar Bhaduri, Ahindra
Chowdhury, Naresh Mitra and Manoranjan Bhattacharjee—but the theater in
Bengal, and throughout India, was at a low point.
India has a more than 2,000-year tradition of dance, dance drama and folk
drama based on religious beliefs, rites and mythology, but modern theater
was introduced into Bengal by British traders in the 17th and 18th
centuries. This introduction, however, did not take root for it was English
theater performed for the entertainment of the English-speaking foreign
community. Creative Bengalis became acquainted with the Western form only
when Gerashim Lebedeff, a Russian trader, in the late 18th century
coauthored with a Bengali the first modern Bengali play. Lebedeff also built
a theater where modem Bengali plays could be presented and wrote a
Bengali-English grammar. As British India's capital from 1833 to 1912,
Calcutta was the center of theatrical activity, not only for the British but
for the Indians as well, and Bengal, among all the regions of the country,
was the one where the Western theater form was accepted and matured most
rapidly. Indian plays and numerous English plays, including Shakespeare,
were performed by Indian actors. After the turn of the century, even though
Calcutta had grown tremendously, with a rising middle class and an
increasing number of English educated Indians, the theater declined. There
was a scarcity of outstanding actors to replace the giants of the late 19th
century—Girish Ghosh, Ardhendu Mustafi and the actress Binodini Dasi. In the
1920s Sisir Kumar Bhaduri ushered in a revival; formerly a lecturer in
English, he formed his own company and several of his productions were
hailed as marking a new era in Bengali theater. Bhaduri was a very good
actor and a good director, and created a number of fine actors and actresses
as well. Yet, by the 1930s, the commercial offerings were characterized by a
lack of imagination and reliance on old plays, sentimental family stories,
musicals and mythological melodramas. The advent of films did nothing to
encourage new directions within the theater.
Even the existence of plays written by Rabindranath Tagore—the 1913 Nobel
Prize winner for literature and India's greatest poet—did not revive the
theater from its doldrums. Tagore readily gave permission for the production
of his plays but he often disapproved of the ways in which they were handled
even by his own fellow Bengalis, and it soon became widely accepted that his
plays were next to impossible to perform.
Dissatisfied with the stereotyped dramas of the time, MITRA left the
commercial stage after a couple of years even though he was already
developing a reputation as an excellent actor. In 1943 he joined the
Anti-Fascist Writers' and Artists' Association. This was a turning point in
his life. He became an active member of the theater section, which later
became a separate organization called Bharatiya Gananatya Sangha, or Indian
Peoples’ Theater Association (IPTA).
IPTA was born during the turmoil in India caused by the movement for
independence from British colonial rule and the Second World War. By 1937
the nonviolent strategy of Mahatma Gandhi had forced the British to agree to
a limited amount of self-government, but the experience was bittersweet as
the confrontations in Europe exploded into World War II. As the war
progressed two unconnected developments had a crucial impact upon the
fortunes of Indian theater.
In 1941 Germany attacked the Soviet Union. Entry of the Soviets into the war
on the side of Britain caused a crisis of conscience for many because, mixed
with aversion for the imperialism which the British represented, there was
much sympathy for socialism. On the cultural level, unlike the political
level, there was some cohesiveness of outlook. While it is not clear whether
IPTA was created because of a directive from the Communist Party of India or
because of strong feelings of unity among the intellectuals and artists, it
is clear that IPTA drew an impressive cross section of the most talented and
progressive people. Many who were to enrich the cultural life of India for
years to come—Ravi Shankar, the world renowned musician; Shanti Bardhan, the
innovative choreographer; the dancers Sachin Mukkerjee and Narendra Sharma;
and Balraj Sahni, Hemanta Mukkerjee and Salil Chowdhury, all big names in
films—were members. Novel and exciting at the time, IPTA encouraged its
members to reach out to the broad masses of people and supported the
production of folk dramas and the study of folk forms. IPTA began on a quiet
note. But then a famine in Bengal in 1943, which was essentially man-made
and resulted in the death of a reported three million people, sent a wave of
horror throughout India. Thousands of starving peasants streamed into
Calcutta from the suffering countryside, and MITRA saw firsthand the common
sight of people begging for just the water in which rice had been boiled.
IPTA seized upon the event: scores of singers, dancers and actors—including
MITRA—traveled around the country to raise funds to aid the famine stricken
In October and November of 1944 IPTA put on Nabanna (Harvest Festival). This
four-act play by Bijon Bhattacharya, a playwright and one of the earliest
members of IPTA, was written in reaction to the famine. MITRA and the author
produced the play, with both of them playing roles—the author's role was
"very important," MlTRA adds, and "he was great in it." Nabanna tells about
the life of Bengali peasants during this harrowing period. Ground down by
poverty, the characters are also victims of the human greed around them.
Getting its name from the final scene in which the harvest festival takes
place, the play ends on a note of hope and belief in the collective strength
of the peasantry. It was produced not only in the Bengali language but also
in Hindi and was made into a film. Its success was overwhelming and its
impact on Indian theater phenomenal.
Nabanna is clearly a landmark in the history of Indian theatrical activity.
It was the first time since Dinabandhu Mitra's play Nildarpan (lit. "blue
mirror" but spoken of in English as The Tale of Indigo Planters) was
produced in the 1870s, that a truly peasant drama had come to the Bengali
stage. Nildarpan, which dealt with the crushing exploitation of the indigo
plantation workers by their British masters, is considered the first play of
social protest in Bengali literature. On at least one occasion the play had
to stop in mid-act because of the outrage of the primarily British audience
when a peasant worker attacked a white planter who was going to rape an
Indian woman; it was eventually banned by the British government. The
Dramatic Performance Control Act of 1876, passed purportedly to control
obscenity, was actually aimed at censoring plays such as Nildarpan that
exposed foreign misrule. The Act put a lid on the further creation of Indian
plays with a social conscience until Nabanna burst forth on the scene.
Nabanna had a stunning impact on viewers because the traditional heroes of
Indian drama were replaced with famine-, strife-ridden village folk. The
language of the play, in keeping with the characters, was another departure
from tradition; for the first time village dialect was used throughout to
dramatize the social reality. MITRA also broke away from elaborate staging
and used an extremely simple set with a plain jute cloth backdrop and
against this silhouettes—a technique then still new in Indian theater. He
introduced a distinctive choreography and stage composition, using silences
in dramatic moments and disjointed significant small scenes put together in
epic form. His use of sound effects was imaginative and startling, but
perhaps the most noteworthy aspect of the play was the flawless acting. At
the time of its production it was said that never before had theatergoers
seen the production of a director like MITRA who had such insight into and
mastery of all the details that go into a performance.
Although the theme was a "non-popular" one, Nabanna played seven consecutive
sellout nights at the Srirangam Theater in Calcutta—an extraordinary
occurrence at the time. But the commercial theater owners, nervous that such
success would draw business away from more traditional theatrical
productions, refused to rent out theaters for future performances; MITRA was
to face this same resistance on the part of commercial theater owners over
and over again. Nabanna, however, continued to be performed on makeshift
stages before large audiences in the countryside as well as in the city.
With the end of the war in August 1945 and the independence of India in
August 1947 IPTA soon became, quite clearly, an arm of the Communist Party
of India and dogmatism began to characterize its work. By 1948 MITRA felt
that he could no longer belong to an organization which confused drama and
the arts with political ideology, and he, like many others, resigned.
The success of Nabanna, however, had convinced him that there was need for
an independent group which would perform serious drama. His house on
Nasiruddin Road in Calcutta had become the favorite gathering place for a
coterie of actors. Inspired by his good friend and mentor Manoranjan
Bhattacharjee, he formed them into a non-commercial drama troupe.
Bhattacharjee, whom MITRA describes as "a grand, wise old man of the
theater," was called The Great Sage in theatrical circles after playing in
the 1920s the role of the poet Valmiki, who wrote the ancient classic
Ramayana, in Sisir Kumar Bhaduri's production Seeta (the wife of King Rama
in the saga). Organized informally in 1948, and formally in 1950, the new
group was given by Bhattacharjee the name Bohurupee, meaning "many, many
forms, " which MITRA felt accurately summed up the role of the actor.
The troupe, which started out with 15 actors, many of whom have remained,
could barely survive during its early years; MITRA’s erstwhile friends in
IPTA "considered him a renegade and refused to help him." Bohurupee had
little money for sets and members of the troupe, of necessity, divided their
time between acting and outside paying jobs. However, while other "little
theater" groups came and went, Bohurupee has lasted more than 25 years,
primarily because MITRA has always put an emphasis on perfection and
creativity, and has shown a willingness to tackle serious, thought-provoking
social dramas. His pioneering in this respect has encouraged other groups
throughout India to experiment and become bolder in their efforts.
The early years were also financially difficult, personally, for MITRA and
his wife Tripti, whom he had met when they were both members of IPTA and had
married in 1945. Tripti, herself an actress of great talent, has frequently
performed with her husband in Bohurupee productions. Their daughter Snaoli,
born during their struggling days when they thought at times they could not
afford to keep her, is a student and a promising actress of the stage and
The only way MITRA and his wife were able to survive during the first years
of Bohurupee's existence was to act in occasional films (some under director
Paul Zils); they both eventually became well-known screen performers. MITRA
also tried his hand at film directing. In 1945-1946 he co-directed the film
Dharti-ke-laal (Children of the Earth) and in 1955 he jointly wrote and
directed the film Jagte Raho (Under Cover of Night) with Amit Moitra. This
film, produced in Hindi and Bengali (under the title Ek din Raatre), won the
Karlovy Vary Grand Prix in Czechoslovakia in 1957. The last film he directed
was Shuva Bibaha (Happy Wedding) in 1959.
MITRA could have settled for a successful and financially secure career as a
movie actor/director, but his real love was the theater and especially
Bohurupee. He was adamant about the independence of his group and he refused
to permit financial support from outside interests or patrons—the
traditional means of sustaining non-professional dramatic groups in India.
Although an offer came to be director of Delhi's National School of Drama he
turned it down to devote himself to Bohurupee.
The early productions of Bohurupee established the precedents by which all
future performances by that troupe and other troupes have been judged.
Meticulous preparation and control characterized the performances. Not even
minor details were neglected. One of the first plays MITRA produced was
Pathik (The Traveler) by Tulsi Lahiri which was later made into a film by
Devaki Bose with members of the Bohurupee troupe. Like Nabanna, Lahiri's
plays have a social message for he wrote of the misery of the poor and the
downtrodden. With the performance of Pathik and Chhenra Taar (Broken
String), also by Tulsi Lahiri, during Bohurupee's First Festival of Plays in
1950-1951, the troupe caught the eye of critics and theatergoers. In 1951
the group produced their first Tagore play, Char Adhyay (Four Chapters).
MITRA had to overcome the old attitude toward performing Tagore's plays but
won the troupe over by demonstrating that Tagore's lines had dramatic
meaning when handled as earthy conversation rather than as a poetic
recitation unrelated to real characters in a drama. Proving with this
successful production that a Tagore play not only was possible to perform
but had a contemporary quality with which audiences could identify, the
troupe firmly secured its position of preeminence in the nonprofessional
As the director of Bohurupee MITRA has offered an original combination of
classical and contemporary, Western and Indian plays. Some of his
outstanding work has been with Western plays. Yet his productions have
differed from the traditional approach which was to produce them in the
original version. MITRA was very aware of the different heritages of the
authors of those plays and that of his Indian audience; therefore he adapted
the plays so that they would be meaningful within the Indian cultural
In his adaptation of Ibsen's A Doll's House (Putulkhela in Bengali) the
Norwegian original is transposed into the Bengali idiom. Nora Helmer, who
comes home from a shopping spree to be chided by her normally indulgent
husband becomes, in MITRA's version, Bulu. The husband, Torvald, who does
not realize that his wife is secretly paying off a debt incurred to save his
life, becomes Tapan. The clerk, Nils Krogstad, from whom Nora borrowed the
money, becomes Keshto. As in Ibsen's play the husband finally becomes aware
of the loan, reacts with anger and concern only for himself, and the play
ends with t heroine leaving her "doll's house" when she realizes how shallow
his relationship with her husband really is. This play had quite an impact,
in India where the fundamental nuclear relationship in a marriage the social
roles each partner must play and the lies that are generated in the
relationship had not previously been the subject of open discussion.
MITRA’s production of another Ibsen play, An Enemy of the People (Dasachakra)
was also a great success when first performed 1952. The story of a doctor,
who faces ostracism because of his determination to tell the truth about the
polluted waters in his town which makes its living from a health spa, was
also adapted into the India idiom. Ibsen's Dr. Stockman became Dr. Guha and
MITRA himself played that role with mastery and deep understanding of the
doctor moral dilemma when confronted with the town's unconscionable greed.
He employed the largest number of people yet used on the Indian stage in the
final confrontation scene. Other Western plays successfully translated into
Bengali by MITRA and performed by Bohurupee including Chekhov's Anniversary
(Sedin Bangalakshmi Bankey) and Oedip Rex (Raja Oidipous) by Sophocles.
MITRA gave a memorable performance as Oedipus. Tripti as Iocaste, the
mother, was equally outstanding.
Although MITRA directed seven highly successful plays with Bohurupee during
the early years of 1950 to 1953, it was the 1954 production of Tagore's
Raktakarabi (Red Oleanders) which brought Bohurupee and Bengali theater into
national prominence and won MITRA critical acclaim. The production won the
first prize in the National Drama Festival. Later performances were attended
by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, future prime minister Indira Gandhi and
other high government officials.
During those years troupes without theaters of their own were forced to
collect tax on tickets to their performances whereas commercial companies
were not taxed. Finally, the West Bengal government 1958 lifted the
amusement tax on group theater tickets, thus helping the non-commercial
groups appeal to a wider audience.
In 1961, the year of Tagore's centenary, there were numerous performances of
his plays throughout India. Most, according to the critics, were
unsuccessful except those put on by Bohurupee. In Calcutta and Delhi the
troupe performed Raktakarabi and, for the first time, Visarjan (Sacrifice),
getting rave reviews and burying once and for all the idea that Tagore could
not be properly performed. Bohurupee's success in producing Tagore's plays
was due largely to MITRA's expert clipping and skillful integration of
relevant parts into the whole, the method of presentation, and sensitive
handling of the language as conversation so that it acquired a contemporary
Raktakarabi written as a prose poem, with symbolic philosophical dialogue,
is the story of a king (MITRA), secluded with his gold and the bones of his
victims in a country where cruel overseers supervise nameless workers who do
nothing but dig gold for their masters. Into this bleak world comes Nandini
(Tripti), a vibrant young woman who always wears red oleanders, and Ranjan,
her lover. Nandini confronts the king (although she cannot see him), with
her visions of beauty, telling him that Ranjan will soon come to free the
people from their miserable conditions. The king eventually comes to realize
that he too is a prisoner of the overseers. In the meantime his deputies,
who fear the arrival of Ranjan, have the king unknowingly kill him.
Discovering what he has done, the king rushes out of his seclusion and joins
Nandini in the revolt which has started. Together they lead the workers to a
new life of spiritual freedom.
MITRA interprets the "play's greatness" as "an outspoken critique of
industrial civilization." It portrays "the inhuman organization of the human
race and the throttling of individuality in a society based on dead,
non-renewable resources, symbolized by gold. It says to come out and try a
new kind of civilization using renewable resources, which does not kill
The plot of Visarjan is similar in that it too revolves around the problem
of morality and has current application. The principal character represents
a new messiah in the world and the theme is the clash within him between
morality and the new ideology. King Govinda, moved by the plea of a beggar
girl whose goat has been sacrificed in the rituals to appease the Goddess
Kali (the destroyer and the renewer in the Hindu triumvirate), forbids
further sacrifice at the temple. As a result he provokes the wrath of the
high priest Raghupati. In his anger the priest tries to get the queen and
his disciple and dearly loved foster son, Jaisingha, who epitomizes the
moral conflict, to plot the king's death and thereby offer royal blood to
Kali. He is finally able to convince the king's brother to do the deed, but
the plot is discovered and Raghupati is banished. Before he leaves, however,
Jaisingha commits suicide. Raghupati, horrified by the consequences of his
dogmatism, breaks the idol of the goddess as he comes to realize that she is
no more than stone.
As Jaisingha, MITRA brought a compelling performance to a character who is
torn between conflicting meanings of life and who kills himself, not out of
an affirmation of will, but as a sacrifice to end the conflict. Tripti, as
the queen, also received enthusiastic reviews.
Another of Tagore's plays successfully performed in the 1960s was Raja (The
King of the Dark Chamber), the second of his two plays on darkness. In
performances of this play MITRA was able to convey to the audience the
spiritual pilgrimage undertaken by a woman to understand herself and fit
herself into the scheme of life. Although the king's presence pervades the
land he is never seen and his authority is never enforced; his subjects are
free and equal. The beautiful and arrogant queen wishes to see the king, who
has only come to her in the dark, but when she does, she is shocked by his
ugliness. She then goes through a period of trial, humiliation and suffering
until she realizes that her own earthly endowments are transient and returns
to the king, purged of her arrogance and pride, recognizing the force within
his calm, and the true nature of his deeper beauty. Every person, this play
of Tagore's says, must make this pilgrimage, dispense with the superficial
and find his place.
Bohurupee has also presented works by contemporary Indian playwrights: Pagla
Ghora (The Mad Horse), performed first in 1969, and Baki Itihas (The Other
Side of History) by Bengali Badal Sarkar who in 1969 won the Sangeet Natak
Akademi (Music Drama Academy) Award for playwriting; and Chop, Adalat
Chalchhey (Silence, the Court is in Session) by the Marathi playwright Vijoy
Tendulkar, in 1971
MITRA has written, as well as produced and acted in, Bengali plays and
these, too, have been highly successful. In Kanchanranga (The Force of Gold)
(1961), which makes fun of man's greed for money, Panchu is the poor
relation of a struggling middle class family. He wins a large sum of money.
Ill-treated and abused before, he becomes the darling of the household. All
members of the family—the nagging wife, the wayward son and the love-struck
daughter—scheme to get the money. Upon finding out that Panchu has not won
after all, they turn on him in their disappointment. In the end, however,
Panchu really does win the money, and wiser but sadder he leaves the family
as they look helplessly on. MITRA also wrote Bibhav (described by him as "a
sketch without stage props") in 1951, a one-act sarcastic satire, and
Ghurnee (The Whirlwind) written between 1951 and 1952.
He is in the process of writing a play which seeks to capture the flavor of
folk life in Bengal and the age old issues of man's existence. The play, to
be called Chandbaniker Pala (Tale of Merchant Chand), is based upon the
legend of merchant Chand's experiments with truth, symbolized by his
attempts to establish the God Shiva, symbol of truth and well-being, in a
society under the control of the snake goddess who represents superstition
and fear. Concerned about presenting moral dilemmas in an Indian setting, as
has been his preoccupation throughout his theater career, MITRA has his
principal character in this play create a god more or less the epitome of
all the goodness of Indian moral values and one day find the god coming to
terms with the darkness that surrounds mankind.
"The scrupulous artist of the stage," he says, "must seek to touch the
depths of his national sensibility which, comprising its myths, legends and
history, constitute its subconscious."
Besides writing plays, MITRA has written essays on the theater which have
been collected into book form in Abhinay Natak Mancha (Acting, Drama and the
Stage) published in the 1950s and Prasanga: Natya (Subject: Theater) which
followed in 1970. These essays have a depth and range of interest that make
them essential reading for anyone seriously involved in theatrical
MITRA compares a theater group with a family—if one member does not behave
or perform well, then the whole group is discredited. Thus during rehearsals
MITRA is a strict taskmaster, seeing that no one strays from the work at
hand. No smoking, tea drinking or irrelevant talk is tolerated.
Throughout his directing career simplicity has characterized MITRA’s
approach to staging. A few details have been used to convey illusions of
distance, vast empty spaces and grandeur. In Raktakarabi, for example, the
setting was symbolic—the king's chamber was offstage with only a red light
visible to indicate his presence. In Raja the stage was broken horizontally
by a ramp running along the length of the stage. In Pagla Ghora MITRA
divided the stage into areas, some to be used for scenes of the present and
others for the flashbacks so essential to the plot.
MITRA’s interpretive handling of dialogue is unique. He is demanding about
enunciation, subtleties of rhythm and tonal quality, and he also has a great
flair for dramatizing pauses. The actors under his direction move with a
fluidity and perfection of body gesture. Lighting, too, is of concern to him
and he has often used light, shade and darkness to achieve startling
results. In Raktakarabi, the light, which focuses upon Nandini as she sits
on the steps leading to the king's chambers, slowly dims and spreads
creating interesting patterns before spotlighting the king's door. In Raja
Oidipous one sees the shadow of the king against the red interior of the
palace which establishes a grotesque yet pathetic atmosphere even before the
SOMBHU MlTRA has often been honored by his countrymen. In 1959 he was
selected as the best theater director of the year by the Sangeet Natak
Akademi in New Delhi and in 1966 was elected a Fellow of that organization.
The Indian government's national honor for civilian service, the Padma
Bhushan, was presented to MITRA in 1970. When Bohurupee celebrated its 25th
anniversary (1973), the praises poured in, including a congratulatory note
from Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.
Chop, Adalat Chalchhey is the last play that MITRA has directed. Since he
formed the Bangla Natmancha Pratistha Samity (the Bengal National Theater
Organization) in 1968 MITRA has given much of his time to this body. His
goal is to build a modern well-equipped theater complex—with stage, library,
seminar rooms, miniature auditorium and projection rooms—which will provide
a place for experimental theater to flourish without fear of financial loss
and without dependence solely upon the availability of commercial theaters.
He believes that Bohurupee should be merged with other major Bengali troupes
into this one Bengali theater group. The development of the complex he
envisions was "temporarily stalled by the emergence of the leftist United
Front Government in Bengal and was not helped by the Congress Government
which came to power in 1972." At present, therefore, MITRA’s only regular
source of income comes from his job as head of the Department of Drama at
the Rabindra Bharati University; this school, founded in memory of
Rabindranath Tagore, provides an education in Bengali which emphasizes
Indian culture and the arts. Financial reward has, over the years, meant
little to MITRA and his wife. If it did they would have stayed in films
where both had growing national reputations.
MITRA is a complex, powerful personality, with great intellectual curiosity,
sincerity and strong moral standards in the broadest sense of the term. He
is, at the same time, compassionate, humble and even vulnerable; he never
speaks ill of his detractors but is hurt by their lack of appreciation of
what he is trying to accomplish. His total dedication to his work is
legendary, and is undertaken with missionary zeal.
Other leading figures in the Indian theater recognize his stature and his
impact in creating a modern Indian theater and "molding the taste of a whole
generation." P. L. Deshpande, a Marathi, writes: "He could without any fear
of exaggeration be described as the most respected man in Indian theater
today." Rudraprasad Sen Gupta, who belongs to the most important Bengali
theater group next to Bohurupee, calls MITRA "the most vital actor, greatest
director and foremost personality of the contemporary Indian stage," and
Herbert Marshall, editor of Indian Theater and Cinema, rates him as "a top
director anywhere. "
MITRA himself sees his role as actor, playwright and director one of helping
individuals define truth in terms of today's problems, knowledge and
aspirations. Drama, he believes, is a way of confronting one's society and
discovering for oneself the meanings of good and evil. Through the theater,
he says, "society, man and human dynamics are examined from a fresh angle."
This new vision in turn "discovers for itself new artistic forms." This
explains why, he adds, "genuine art in the beginning appears rebellious, a
destroyer of national values. . . .Since life itself is complex, with a
multitude of dimensions, levels and nuances, art, if it is to become
meaningful, has similarly to be multidimensional, multi-level, enriching
national values and at the same time echoing universal concerns." MITRA has
successfully created such an art through the medium of Bohurupee.
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______. Workshop with the Philippine Educational Theater Association (PETA).
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______. "Good Play and a Great Director," Hindustan Times. New Delhi March
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Times of India. Bombay. December 22, 1959; October 30,1966.
Interview with Sombhu Mitra and letters from and interviews with his