Djakarta, on the island of Java, lies 6° below the equator on the trade
route between China, the West and the spice islands of the Indonesian archipelago. In the
16th century it was known as Sunda Kelapa, a port of the Sundanese Hindu kingdom of
Padjadjaran. It was conquered by the Moslem Sultan of Bantam on June 22, 1527 who
memorialized his feat by renaming it Djaya Karta (Accomplished Victory). The city
celebrates this date as its founding.
Later razed and rebuilt by the Dutch, it was named Batavia, or in the local dialect,
Betawi. After 350 years of Dutch rule and three and one half years of Japanese occupation
during World War II, the country and city declared themselves independent on August 17,
1945. Four and a half years later, on December 27, 1949, international recognition was
given to this old-new country of Indonesia, to Djakarta (later to be spelled Jakarta) as
its capital and to Sukarno as its President.
ALI SADIKIN, destined to help Djakarta find itself in the post-independence era, was
born on July 7, 1927 in Sumedang, West Java, in the 400-year anniversary of the founding
of Djakarta. His parents were Sundanese of modest means, his father being a district
agricultural extension officer.
During the Japanese occupation, young ALI was sent to Batavia to attend the Merchant
Marine School, and immediately after graduation he served as instructor at the same
school. In the struggle for independence that began as World War II ended, he joined with
other young freedom fighters in the capital city the nationalists now called Djakarta to
organize the Badan Keamanan Rakyat Laut, or the People's Sea Defense Front, which
constituted the founding of the Indonesian Navy. After serving with the Front for several
months, he was sent to Tegal, Central Java, to help organize the Fourth Naval District,
which eventually chose that city as its headquarters site. In 1950, soon after
independence was won, ALI SADIKIN was summoned to Surabaya Naval Base for Additional
Energetic, alert, dedicated, with the ability to identify with and inspire men, the
young officer continued his upward rise as Commander of the Navy Barracks at Wonokitri in
Surabaya, East Java, and as concurrent Chief of Staff of the Marine Corps. He was also a
lecturer at the Naval Academy in Surabaya and military judge on the High Military Tribunal
for Surabaya and Malang. In 1953 he was sent to the United States Marine Corps School in
Quantico, Virginia, for advanced training. Returning, he was made Commander of the Marine
Corps Training Center and concurrently Commandant of the Marine Forces. From 1959 to 1963,
when he attracted the attention of then President Sukarno, he was Deputy to the
Minister/Commander-in-Chief of the Indonesian Navy.
For his military service he was decorated with 26 medals and honors; among others the
Guerrilla medal, medals for the First and Second Wars for Independence, medals for the
First, Second, Fifth and Sixth Military Operations and for the Operation Against the
Rebellion in the Celebes. He has received medals of the second order from the Indonesian
Navy, Army, Airforce and Police. His government has bestowed upon him the Medal for Dharma
for outstanding service and the Medal of Maha Putra, the highest recognition for a
distinguished son of the nation. He has also been decorated by the governments of Ethiopia
and the Netherlands.
In 1963 Sukarno, "who liked to surround himself with dramatic, dynamic
types," appointed SADIKIN Minister of Sea Communications and concurrently Minister
Coordinator for Maritime Affairs. SADIKIN served both president and country well.
The consensus of serious political observers is that Sukarno's most effective action in
his last months before being forced from office was the appointment on April 28, 1966 of
ALI SADIKIN as Governor of Djakarta. To this job 39-year old SADIKIN, already a Major
General, brought the discipline and dedication of his military training; his ability to
work with people, well tested in coping with critical problems during the Sukarno years;
his obvious qualities of leadership honed through years of high command, and his
humanitywhich was to be the key to his approach to administering the dirty,
sprawling city he had been ordered by Sukarno to "save."
Recounting his reaction to his appointment, he remarked later, "I thought I was
not lucky. I knew the condition the city was in and I had no experience or education for
Djakarta was a city that must have seemed to him at first ungovernable. It had grown
from a fairly sleepy colonial capital of 600,000 in 1941not known even then for its
sanitation or quality of lifeto a congested, overgrown capital of a newly
independent nation with a population of approximately 5,000,000 in 1966. Infrastructure
and facilities needed to maintain the mushrooming urban population were not sufficiently
provided during the Sukarno years, when politics and national prestige were major concerns
and low priority was given to housing, jobs, electricity, water, transportation or various
other necessities and amenities. In 1966 only 15 percent of the houses in the city had
water or electricity. The proportion decreased in the next few years as the population
continued to increase at the annual rate of over four percent, and priority had to be
given to the replacement of water and sewer pipes already over 60 years old before new
ones could be added to the system. The other 85 percent of the city was dependent on
kerosene for lighting and on the canals and ditches for both water supply and sewerage.
Administratively there was the problem of divided responsibility, or
"verticalism" and "dualism," between the central and local
governments. Departments were duplicated in the two chains of command. Jealousy over power
and perquisites resulted in little or nothing moving except the extent of the city's needs
which grew steadily larger. Moreover, competition among the many military and paramilitary
units in control of the city made administration even more difficult.
Within 10 months SADIKIN was to be confronted by yet another complication. He was a
Marine general and a Sukarno appointee who found himself serving, after February 1967,
under General Suharto and the victorious Army generals who had forced Sukarno to give up
all executive authority.
When Sukarno appointed SADIKIN governor and told him to "save the city,"
SADIKIN set out to learn firsthand the problems of the people of the city he was to save.
Incognito, he traveled the length and breadth of Djakarta, alone or with only an aide, on
foot, by jeep, or on public transportationof which there was pitifully little. He
stood in the rain and tried to squeeze onto the overcrowded buses; he saw scalpers buy up
the few tickets that were available. He ate at the roadside stalls and heard the
complaints of the hawkers, the slum dwellers and the squatters. He "felt the
hopelessness of hordes of children without shoes to wear to school, or schools in which to
wear them." He watched people bathe and wash clothes in open sewers. "I try to
understand the problems of the common people. I have no training so with me it is trying
to know the problems, a little bit of common sense and feeling."
In the first six months in office he lost 15 pounds and much sleep, but he established
his priorities. He would move to improve infrastructure, education and environment, in
that order. Basic to his approach was concern that the development effort lead to a speedy
economic acceleration through a management policy of implementing "proper
distribution of income and thereby proper distribution of social participation and social
One of the first problems SADIKIN tackled was transportation. The city was almost at a
traffic standstill because of deeply potholed roads, narrow streets and little public
transportation. He filled in the potholes, resurfaced the streets, widened major
thoroughfares, and persuaded foreign firms to build bridge overpasses and pedestrian
shelters on the understanding that they could use their surfaces for advertising.
A fleet of 5OO American school buses were brought in under a United States AID program,
and set-fares and a scheduled routing system were established. Two thousand more buses
could have been used, but there were two deterrents: lack of funds and the recognition
that betjak (pedicab) drivers were supporting upwards of 200,000 people on their earnings.
In spite of the congestion pedicabs caused on the main streets, SADIKIN moved against them
slowly. As one observer noted: "Humanity has been SADIKIN's strongest point. If he
were the simple Marine officer many thought him to be . . . he would have used force
frequently and tact rarely; he has authority to be as rough as he likes. But his every
move has been marked by consideration for people." To increase pedestrian safety he
strung kilometers of wire fencing between pedestrian walk areas and roadways.
During his first three years as governor, SADIKIN built 200 schools, more than had been
built in the previous 20 years. The schools ran double shifts, with children going to
school either in the mornings or afternoons, and teachers teaching one half of the day or
the other; even so the city was still short 300,000 to 350,000 school seats.
Children were a constant worry to BANG ALI (ELDER BROTHER ALI)as he became
familiarly called by the people of the city. They watched him move among them and saw that
his concern for them was real. "Children are my biggest problemto give them
food, clothes, shelter, and after fifteen years work . . . . they are depending on me. . .
. But every year 170,000 new babiesthree quarters of Bonn's population!"
He began building family planning clinics next to maternity hospitals in the hope that
new mothers would use them, but population increase continued to plague him. By 1970 the
population had reached 4,700,000, with an annual 2.8 percent natural increase and a 2.5
percent increase by immigration, mostly from the countryside. With official approval, on
August 5th of that year SADIKIN declared Djakarta a "closed city": no one could
enter the city to live unless he had a job and house waiting. Each immigrant was required
to deposit a returnable sum with city authorities in case the job or housing failed to
Money was a major problem when BANG ALI took office and has remained so. In 1966
inflation in Indonesia was 600 percent. It was reduced over the next three years, by
incredible effort, to 10 percent. The central government had little money to spare for the
city, although it was headquartered in Djakarta and collected taxes from all its citizens.
Djakarta still provides the national government with 40 percent of its tax revenues but
gets back only enough to meet the municipal payroll and minimum routine expenses. In 1971,
against a budget of 12 billion rupiahs (Rp. 340 then equaled US$1) only 3.3 billion (27
percent) were supplied by the central government. In contrast Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur
received 85 percent of their budgets from the central government, and the budget of
Bangkok then was more than twice that of Djakarta's for half as many people.
SADIKINs only choices were to increase municipal tax collections and find other
tax sources. Imaginatively, he decided that gambling, which was primarily in the hands of
gangsters, was a source of surplus money. In spite of the outcry from Muslim religious
leaders that gambling is forbidden to Islam, he "localized" gambling, i.e.,
brought it under government supervision and control, and taxed the fruits of it heavily.
Gambling, he announced, was for foreigners and the local Chinese (inveterate gamblers) and
gambling taxes would be used to build schools. He declared that God would more readily
forgive him for recognizing gambling than for allowing hundreds of thousands of children
to grow up illiterate and unprepared to earn a living. He later set up a government
lottery. In 1968 30 percent of the revenue of Djakarta came from taxes on gaming.
As another tax source, and to make Djakarta more attractive to tourists, he encouraged
the establishment of nightclubs. When the religious leaders again protested, including
some officials whom he knew were the first to visit such establishments in Hong Kong and
Bangkok, he replied, "I can't turn five million Djakartans into angels. Some must go
to hell," and pointed out again that the schools and roads were dependent upon such
SADIKINs budget goal is 60 percent for development and 40 percent for routine
administrative outlay. In 1969/70 he achieved a ratio of 52 to 48 percent, and in 1970/71
came nearer his goal with 58 to 42. There was no money for public housing, however.
"Nothing in the present national priorities will allow import of materials in a
subsidized manner. Without such aid, I could not build anything cheap enough for people to
From the first BANG ALI recognized that he must be both a community leader and an
administrator. As a leader he must raise the people's sights and help them develop a sense
of confidence in the future. By cleaning up the streets, establishing a dependable
transportation system, building schools and beginning the tremendous job of getting
running water and electricity to the 85 percent of the population without them, he gave
the people hope. As one Djakarta editor said, "For the first time, people on the city
feel someone cares about them."
As an administrator he recognized he must first "establish priorities, channels,
and procedures and assert his own authority. . . . " The first necessity was
unification of the governmental structure. His Order of Unification of June 22, 1966 was a
follow-up of the Dwikora Cabinet decision of June 1965 which had recognized the weakness
of dual central and local administrative channels. His hand was strengthened the following
year when Suharto, by Presidential Instruction No. 15, recognized the governor as the
single authority in Daerah Chusus Ibukota Djakarta (Special Region of the Capital City
Djakarta, referred to as DCI Djakarta) as the city had been designated since 1961.
The governor is the sole administrative authority, responsible only to the president,
and with the twofold function of carrying out presidential policy and making regional
(municipal) decisions. He has four deputies. He cooperates with an elected Municipal
Council composed of 40 members which assists him in making political decisions, a Planning
Board, and the DCI Djakarta Administration Secretariat which functions as a general staff
and makes judgmental and technical decisions. The Secretariat is composed of the heads of
the six directorates into which the city government is organized (local government
affairs, security and order, public welfare, development, economic affairs, and finance),
and the heads of the five bureaus (city council, regional administration, administrative
affairs, personnel, and legislation).
In "line positions" are the heads of the various physical areas of the DCI.
On August 9, 1966 Djakarta was divided into: five townships, each under a mayor who is a
technical person appointed by the governor; 27 sub-districts consisting of 200,000 persons
and under a divisional officer, and 220 "village" units of around 30,000 people
under a village leader. At the bottom are the neighborhood organizations of 40 to 50
family units. These officers are in relationship to the governor and the secretariat as
line officers are to the commanding officer and the general staff in the Marine Corps.
Power is decentralized, with the headman at the lowest level being "responsible for
knowing everything that goes on in the neighborhood and for carrying out government orders
and organizing various neighborhood activities." The next level up is responsible for
"such matters as local security and sanitation and the distribution of subsidized
rice, cooking oil and textiles." This policy of administration seeks to insure
"greater participation of the communities in development activities and encourages
cooperation between the government and the communities. Furthermore, the Governor is freed
from the daily routine activities of administration."
The arrangement has also been likened to a modern business, "with every employee
as well as resident in the city as a 'shareholder' having a stake in it and doing his own
share of the responsibilities. It is an arrangement of reciprocity, where each member
gives and receives."
Djakarta has operated since 1967 under three development plans. The Three-Year
Rehabilitation Plan was instituted for the years 1967-1969 and was to coordinate
activities "both from the central and local governments, private and public sectors,
with a corresponding proposed budget for every activity. The development covers the
physical; spiritual, social, administrative and economic needs of the community."
Major projects were building and improving roads, public buildings, transportation
facilities, schools and clinics. The Five-Year Development Plan (Repelita) is an extension
of the Three-Year Plan and extends from 1969 through 1974. It includes ongoing projects of
the Three-Year Plan and a total of "278 local projects to be financed by the local
government and 99 central government projects."
Over and above these more limited plans is the Twenty-Year Plan, or the Master Plan,
which was decreed by the Municipal Legislative Council in 1967, but was backdated to cover
the period 1965-1985. The Master Plan aims at making Djakarta capable of fulfilling its
functions as a capital, a commercial and industrial city, and a cultural and tourist city,
and of providing employment and raising the standard of living of 80 percent of its
people. Reporting to the Council at the completion of his first five-year term in office,
SADIKIN commented that one-fourth of the time period of the Master Plan had passed and
that the government to date had been only "laying cornerstones for further
development activities." Cooperation had been established between the executive and
the legislative branches and the military, a condition important to stepping up services
to the community and in helping develop Djakarta as a national capital and international
In his report SADIKIN broke down the Master Plan into major categories and discussed
plans or progress in each field. Under Administration Apparatus and Affairs he announced
that Rp.39 million had been allocated to improve personnel skills; development programs
had been synchronized with national development programs; agencies had been set up which
included housing, fire-control, sanitation, tourism, town planning, industrial affairs and
investment; a standardized work directory was produced; work rooms were modernized; plans
were prepared for the construction of public buildings at all levels of the DCI structure,
and modest residences were built for senior officers in the municipal government.
Special attention was paid to the development of administrative resources at the
township level and lower. One hundred seventy-eight village, 15 sub-district and 3
township office buildings, he announced, were completed or nearing completion.
Telecommunication links had been established between security and administrative units and
surveys had been made concerning transportation needs, village improvements, property
rights and income assessments. An anti-illiteracy campaign was undertaken and public
library units built. Voluntary mutual aid activities were supported administratively and
financially. Eighty police stations and seven military command stations were established
and 133 motor cars and boats were purchased for the security forces. Rp.163 million were
spent on fire control projects, fire stations, cars and a VHF radio unit.
In the field of Social Welfare 216 mosques, 371 prayer houses, 5 churches, 263 Islamic
religious schools and 171 primary Islamic schools were renovated. In the secular field 347
primary schools, 113 junior and senior secondary schools and vocational and training
schools were established or rehabilitated. The DCI is responsible only for primary
education but SADIKIN has aided secondary education as well since little was being done by
the central government.
A major cultural and recreation center, Taman Ismail Marzuki, was built and the zoo was
relocated on an appropriate large suburban site. Youth centers, museums, scientific
institutes, a race course, 14 basketball and volleyball courts, 8 soccer fields, 4
swimming pools and 4 sports halls were constructed, as a result of which ALI SADIKIN
received an award "for the Promotion of Sports in Indonesia." Aid was given to 4
public hospitals, 19 community health centers were established and services were provided
to 50,000 family planning acceptors.
Infrastructure was another major sector dealt with in the Master Plan. SADIKIN reported
a total of 1,312 kilometers of roads, 45 bridges, 7 bus terminals, 390 bus shelters and 15
overhead bridges have been built, and 1,099 buses bought. His administration also
concerned itself with road lighting, construction and rehabilitation of 23.4 kilometers of
sewage canals and floodgates, laying water pumps and pipelines, and building windmills.
Effort was made to improve public hygiene by increasing the number of refuse collection
trucks and refuse bins, and a beautification program was begun, first by simply cleaning
up the streets and parks, and then by planting greenery along 50 kilometers of roads and
laying out 13 hectares of parks.
With administration and encouragement, trade grew between 1966 and 1970 from
approximately 15,500 million rupiahs to 133 million, banking from 1,324 million to 10,700,
and industry from 2,223 million to 21,100. Seventeen tourist hotels were operating by the
end of 1970 and 37 more were under construction. Bars, nightclubs and restaurants to
attract foreign tourists were being built. Per capita income increased during these same
years from Rp.6,224 to 47,141, and SADIKIN estimates that 98,600 new job opportunities
will develop during the next four years.
DCI expenses increased from approximately 1.2 billion rupiahs in 1966 to 13.4 billion
in 1971/72 and the central government has yet to help substantially. An important
administrative reform has been that the budget must be drawn up before the year in which
it goes into effect.
The city has been attempting to render services to economic projects of both private
and public nature. It has increased market facilities by making available to the central
government 17 hectares of land for market construction and has itself built a central
market. Pilot cooperative projects have been encouraged, especially credit cooperatives.
Small-scale industry was abetted by training 2,000 persons in manufacturing household
articles and by making industrial surveys.
A certain amount of farmland and forest falls within DCI Djakarta. Thus in the sectors
of agriculture, animal husbandry and forestry, seed stations, rice-barns, and an
agricultural training center were established; vegetable cultivation was intensified,
18,600 fruit trees were "rejuvenated" and 2,000 clove trees were planted. Two
veterinarian laboratory units, an artificial insemination center for pigs and an abattoir
were constructed. Coastal forests were rehabilitated and expanded and seven forestry
inspection posts and two nature reserves established.
Both inland and sea fishery projects were encouraged and attempts were made to upgrade
equipment and marketing facilities. A breeding station of 54 hectares was established for
a fresh water fish species (bandeng), a survey made, and an experimental station for
breeding ornamental fish begun.
Delivery of this progress report coincided with the official celebration of the 444th
anniversary of the founding of Djakarta. A celebration of the event was instigated by
SADIKIN in 1969 to add some color and fun to the generally drab lot of the citizens. The
festivities included firework displays, street dancing, parades and, in this
electricity-shore city, all-night lighting.
BANG ALI is the first to recognize that "leadership cannot work only with
charisma; the leader has to be one who is ready to work." Nevertheless, combined with
his seemingly infinite capacity for work, Governor SADIKIN has an immense amount of that
other quality, and a feel for the emotional as well as the physical needs of his people.
He has a winning way with crowds, can quickly adapt his words to their moods and, as one
observer noted, is "out dancing and laughing with his citizens on the occasion of any
festival or celebration." Another reporter commented: "He has the gift of
projecting his own personality upon his chosen audience and of establishing that
electrical contact which signifies almost a mystical rapport." He is "skilled in
histrionics, with flashing eyes, mobile features, a mellifluous voice and total
However, he has a quick temper and his flashes of anger fall on the mighty and lowly
alike. He has shouted at aides in public and the Minister of Education and the Minister of
Religion have both felt his ire: the Minister of Religion because he refused to help the
Djakarta government build a hotel for Indonesians leaving on pilgrimage to Mecca, the
Education Minister because the department failed to staff some of the schools he had built
with such effort. "I can become angry easily because I am frank," he says, and
in an open letter to the people of Djakarta in 1970 he asked their forgiveness for his
outbursts of temper. "It's only from his mouth, not from his heart," one of his
His anger is usually channeled productively. When he learned that pickpockets were
infesting his new bus terminal, he personally swooped down and rounded them up. "They
were young boys about 20. I lined them up, smacked some faces, put them in military
barracks for two days, then we met at City Hall. I talked. They cried. They could not get
work. I gave them work."
He treated the city's 30,000 employees the same way. He disciplined, threatened and
cajoled them into showing up for workmore or less on timeand eliminated
bribery, but tried to meet the payroll on time. When acquainted with the plight of the
retired civil servants, he doubled their inflation-eroded pensions.
SADIKINs day starts at 6:30 a.m. with breakfast with his wife, Nani, who is a
practicing dentist. As he puts it, he supports his wife and four sons on his government
salary three days a week; she supports them all the other four days. His aide and private
secretary join them in their state-provided villa (he refuses to live in the governor's
palace). He scans 15 newspapers during breakfast and looks over the news agency reports as
he is driven to the City Hall in his government-provided Land Rovera vehicle which
has become a status symbol in today's Djakarta. The newspapers, SADIKIN says, tell him
things his aides are either unaware of or don't wish to tell him. He calls the press his
Arriving at City Hall he summons department heads to his operations roomwhich is
large and well-furnished, with slide panels of maps of Djakarta, charts of statistics, 20
microphones, slide and movie projectors and a soundproof studioto discuss their
problems and plans with the other department heads. "Frequently he interrupts with
queries, comments, demands for more effective action," one of them reports. Then he
is off to survey the city's trouble spots. "Sometimes he rides incognito in a Fiat
for surprise appraisals of various projects. To it all he brings a military addiction to
Perhaps ALI SADIKINs most important contributions have been cutting through
governmental inertia, inefficiency and red tape and eliminating bribery. He did this
primarily by exhortation and by changing the governmental structure to make efficiency
Kenneth Watts of the United Nations Center for Housing, Building and Planning was asked
by SADIKIN to write down his impressions of Djakarta on his return to the city in 1971
after a 12 to 15 year absence. Watts wrote:
"I would wish to express, at the outset, my admiration to you and your officers
for the very real efforts which have been, and are being taken to upgrade Djakarta. I
would not say this if I were merely to use the evidence of construction along Djl. Thamrin
and in the big squares: the test, for me, of this new spirit is to be found in the
Kampongs (villages) where you are upgrading the physical environment m a systematic way,
and building new schools, polyclinics and other public facilities. The theme which I shall
attempt to develop is that development is a total process, involving social, physical as
well as economic change; and in this respect, I believe that your approach to the problems
of city development in Djakarta is right."
Mochtar Lubis, noted Indonesian journalist and a 1958 Ramon Magsaysay Awardee who was
recognized "for his courageous and constructive contribution to journalism as a power
for the public good," commented a year earlier: "What is more important. . . .
is not SADIKINs tangible achievements but another, bigger, intangible thing: he has
shown that by responsible dedicated leadership Indonesians can help themselves. He has
achieved so much to improve life in Djakarta, not by getting foreign aid but by using his
imagination and leadership. In doing so, he has inspired people to work hard for the
public good. He has instilled a new sense of self-confidence into them and their
Perhaps the last word should be given to his wife who says: "The Governor is a man
who can take 10 steps while others take one. And each seep he takes leads Djakarta's
citizens coward a better life."
''AsiaWhere the Action Is," Time. July 19, 1971.
Barton, John F. "Indonesian Economic Recovery a Model for Others to Follow,"
New Nation. Singapore. April 10, 1971.
"Big-mouthed Ali," Harian Kami. Djakarta. April 3, 1971.
DCI Djakarta Brochures:
Development of Djakarta in Brief. N.d. 33 p.
Dinas Peternakan Keshatan Hewan (Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Services). (In
Djakarta Dari Abad Ke Abad (Djakarta from Age to Age). (In Indonesian.) N.d.
Djakarta, the Gateway to Cultural Paradise. Tourist Development Board. M.M. 085/1969.
Djakarta Investment Office. N.d.
Djakarta, Its Rehabilitation Development. N.d., 26 p.
Djakarta Offers Project Antjol to the Investor. M.M. 065/1969.
Djakarta, The Rising Metropolis. Tourist Development Board. N.d.
Djakarta Visitors' Guide Map. Ibid. N.d.
Ibukota Djakarta Milik Bangsa Indonesia Hut 442 (DjakartaThe National Heritage of
Indonesia, 442nd Anniversary). (In Indonesian.) June 22, 1969.
Masalah Sosial (Social Welfare Services). (In Indonesian.) N.d.
Mesdjid Makna Dan Fungsingja (The MosqueIts Nature and Function). (In
Indonesian.) Dept. of Religion for the Djakarta Fair. 1970.
Museum Dalam Pelita DCI Djakarta (The Museum of DCI Djakarta) (In Indonesian.) N.d.
Pelita Bidang Ekonomi (Economic Information Service). (In Indonesian.) M.M. 089/1969.
Pembangunan Dan Pengembangan Bidang Perikanan Darat (The Establishment and Development
of Fresh Water Fisheries). (In Indonesian.) Fresh Water Fisheries Service. 1970.
Pembinaandan Pengembaraan Perekonomian Melalui Registrasi Perusahaan 1968/69
(Maintenance and Development of the Economy Through the Registration of Establishments by
the Executive Body, 1968/69). (In Indonesian.) M.M. 088/1969.
Pemerintah Daerah Chusus Ibukota Djakarta (Special Region of the Capital Djakarta). (In
Indonesian.) Real Estate and Construction Corporation. N.d.
Pengamalan Sila Pertama Pantjasila (The First of the Five Rules). (In Indonesian.)
Perumahan Pegawai DCI (Housing for Djakarta Officials). (In Indonesian.) N.d.
Pro Bandjir Djaya (Anti-Flood Measures in Djakarta). (In Indonesian.) 1970.
Pusdiklatnil Peremintah DCI Djakarta (The Education and Training of Administrative
Personnel of the DCI Djakarta). (In Indonesian.) 1970.
Repelita DCI Djakarta (Five-Year Plan of the Special Region of Djakarta). (In
Indonesian.) N d.
Shalat dan Batjaannja (Prayer and Its Execution). (In Indonesian.) N.d.
Tanja Djawab Tentang IUD (Questions and Answers on the IUD). (In Indonesian.) N.d.
"Djakarta's Taxes of Sin," The Asian. Hong Kong. November 7-13, 1971.
Foisie, Jack. "Djakarta Thrives Under Popular Governor: Sadikin Keeps City Lively
and Improves Economy," Los Angeles Times. Extract. N.d.
Galloway,Joseph. "DjakartaA Spicy City," UPI dispatch. Djakarta. 1968.
______. "Unorthodox Mayor of Unorthodox City," UPI dispatch. Djakarta. 1968.
Hanna, Willard A. Pak Dikin's Djakarta Part I: Change and Chance in a Stricken City.
American Universities Field Staff, South East Asia Series. Vol. XVII, no. 1 (Indonesia),
______. Pak Dikin's Djakarta Part II: Exhibit of Urban Figures. Op. cit., no. 2
(Indonesia), 12 p.
Hughes, John. "How Jakarta Was Transformed," Christian Science Monitor.
Boston, Mass. December 31, 1969.
Lescaze, Lee. "Djakarta Battles Overcrowding, Poverty," Washington Post.
October 26, 1970.
Lubis, Mochtar. "Djakarta's Swinging Governor," Asia Magazine. Hong Kong.
Vol. 9, no. 2. January 12, 1969.
Mabbet, Hugh. "Humanity is keynote of Jakarta's no nonsense governor: Sadikin, the
tough town tamer's thankless task," Straits Times. Singapore, November 29, 1970.
"On Nightclubs and Hostesses," (Editorial), Abadi, Djakarta. January 8, 1971.
Saar, John. "An Honest Marine Rescues Djakarta," Life Magazine. February 2,
Sadikin, Ali. "The Administration of the Djakarta Special Capital City
Region." Presensation made to Group Discussion. Transcript. Ramon Magsaysay Award
Foundation, Manila. December 14, 1971.
______. Letter to Belen H. Abreu. August 31, 1971.
______. "444th Djakarta Anniversary Address at the 22nd June 1971 Special Plenary
Session of the Regional Legislative Council (DPRD-GR)."
Tulaar, Thory. "I Saw What Was Needed," Horizons. Manila: U.S. Information
Agency. Vol. 18, no. 5. 1969.
Watts, Kenneth. Report to Mr. Ali Sadikin, Governor of Djakarta-Raya (DCI) on the
Future Development of Djakarta. February 18, 1971.
Letters from and interviews with persons familiar with Ali Sadikin and his work.
Observation visits to Djakarta.