Natural rubber was identified in 1860 by C. G.
Williams as consisting of three ingredients, "oil, tar and spirit," the latter,
the essence of rubber, he named isoprene. In today's terminology natural rubber is "a
polyisoprene of very high molecular weight plus naturally occurring anti-oxidants and
accelerators." It is commonly obtained from the latex (milk-like fluid) of the Hevea
brasiliensis, a tree native to South America.
Columbus, on his second voyage to the New World, saw Indians in Haiti playing with
balls "made of the gum of a tree" and brought samples back to Queen Isabella.
Others later reported that the Indians waterproofed their cloaks and made footwear and
storage jars of this substance. Rubber was thus introduced to Europe at the turn of the
16th century, but, with the exception of being used to "rub out" pencil
marksfrom which in 1770 a well-known London chemist, Joseph Priestly, coined its
nameit was little utilized until several simple but necessary discoveries of the
19th century made it more malleable and more useful.
The first was the discovery by the Scotsman Charles Macintosh in 1823 that he could
liquefy rubber by using low-cost coal-tar naptha as a solvent. He placed the liquid
substance between two sheets of cloth, thereby effectively sealing and waterproofing them,
and gave his name to the new rainwear. In 1839 Charles Goodyear in the United States
developed the process of vulcanization. He found that adding sulfur and heat to rubber
increased its elasticity, resilience and strength and enabled it to withstand changes in
temperature. Overnight rubber became a major industrial material; it was first used for
hard tires in 1846.
Rubber estates began to be developed because wild rubber was irregular both as to
quality and quantity. An impetus to planting came in 1873 when the India office of the
British government took a direct interest. In 1876 an English plant explorer, Henry
Wickham, collected some 70,000 seeds of a rubber tree growing wild in the Amazon Basin of
Brazil that could be tapped repeatedly and brought them to Kew Gardens outside of London.
About four percent of these seeds sprouted in the greenhouse and provided planting
material for distribution to Britain's tropical colonies in Africa and Asia. Of the 22
seedlings that reached Singapore's Botanic Gardens the next year, 9 were later sent to the
Residency gardens in Kuala Kangsar and became parent trees of many of Malaya's first
estates. At this time the industry settled on this Hevea Brasiliensis as the most suitable
source of rubber; all trees in South and Southeast Asia today derive from the Kew Gardens
The real push to increase commercial planting came after the patenting in 1888 by J. B.
Dunlop of the pneumatic (inflatable) tire with air-filled inner tube for bicycles, which
made the modern world of the automobile possible. Since 1900 natural rubber and the
automotive industry have been intimately involved. Even today 65 percent of the world's
supply of natural rubber goes into tire production.
Synthetic rubber was developed during the first part of the 19th century when the
nature of rubber was under scientific scrutiny. Production grew rapidly after 1914. As
factors leading to World War II became apparent in the 1930s, both Germany and the USSR
made a concerted effort to achieve self sufficiency in rubber by developing synthetics. By
1939 they were producing over 70,000 tons annually. In 1942 Southeast Asia, which still
produces 90 percent of the world's supply of natural rubber, was occupied by the Japanese
and natural rubber became unavailable to the Allied Nations. As a result, development of
synthetic rubber was given high priority in the United States which made great strides in
producing wartime substitutes and. by the time of Japan's surrender in August 1945 was
manufacturing about one million tons a year, chiefly a general purpose styrene-butadiene
rubber. By 1946, synthetic rubber, which is commonly created from petroleum, had of
necessity replaced natural rubber in almost all fields in most of the industrialized
world. However, none of the synthetics contained the precise molecular pattern which gives
rubber its singular characteristics. The agents used to induce polymerizationthe
process causing simple molecules to join together and form long chainscould not
control precisely the order of molecules within the chain. A breakthrough occurred in 1953
when two chemists, Ziegler and Natta, discovered a family of catalysts that would cause a
nearly exact organization of molecules in repeated patterns. It was this discovery that
permitted the production of Cis-1, 4-polyisoprenethe only synthetic in direct
competition with natural rubberand that led to the crisis in natural rubber with
which BALACHANDRA CHAKKINGAL SEKHAR has been concerned all his adult life.
Although natural rubber is essential to the economies, and the livelihoods of a large
proportion of the peoples, of Southeast Asia, synthetic rubber is a modern day necessity
which, except for cispolyisoprene, often fulfills functions that natural rubber cannot
fulfill. Moreover, world rubber needs, expected to reach 17 million tons by 1980, are far
in excess of the ability of natural rubber to supply. Today, natural rubber production is
three million tons, 33 percent of total production. SEKHAR believes that the
technico-economic norm is 42 percent7 million tons by 1980. He maintains that the
techniques to achieve this goal are at hand. These include faith in the future of natural
rubber, the use of science and technology, and an understanding of the continuously
changing needs of the "discriminating, sophisticated consuming industry."
BALACHANDRA CHAKKINGAL SEKHAR was the third child of Achath Sekhar Nair and his wife
Sithalakshmi Ammal. He was born on November 17, 1929 at Sungei Buloh, Selangor, Malaya
(now Malaysia), less than four miles from an experimental station of the Institute he now
heads. His father had emigrated here from Kerala, India, at the age of 17 to join a
brother who was working as an estate conductor, opening up a rubber plantation. Surviving
the hard and dangerous work of clearing the jungle, his father participated in planting
14,000 acres of rubber, including the 3,400 acres which became the experimental state of
the Rubber Research Institute of Malaya (changed to Malaysia in 1972) (RRIM). He rose to
become an estate assistant but could go no higher; senior positions were reserved for
Achath Sekhar Nair determined his children would have an education that would allow
them to seek careers where there were no such arbitrary restrictions. As a result he gave
up his position on the state and moved his family into Kuala Lumpur where both he and hey
would have greater opportunities. Entering the insurance field, he eventually became
manager of an Indian agency. It was therefore without parental intent or guidance that two
decades later young B. C. SEKHAR found himself deeply involved in the problems of rubber.
SEKHAR was sent to India for his college education and earned Bachelor of Science
degree in Chemistry from the University of Delhi at the age of 19. He planned to work for
an advanced degree at Singapore University in chemical engineering. While waiting for the
school year to begin, he applied for a job at RRIM. He was informed that there were no
jobs available, but was nevertheless invited visit the institution. He did so and made
such an impression "with his searching queries" that he was offered a position
as Assistant Chemist by the next mail.
Years later when asked why he gave up his plans for chemical engineering and devoted
his life to rubber, SEKHAR explained: "after working a few months I felt I must
contribute something worthwhile to the rubber industry on which the Malayan economy
depended." In helping to improve the production, processing and market acceptability
of natural rubber, "I felt I could do something for this country."
In 1953, at the time cis-polyisoprene was being perfected, SEKHAR was given a United
States government fellowship to study polymer chemistry at the University of Michigan.
Receiving his Master of Science in 1954, he spent the next six months at the Welwyn (near
London) Laboratory of the British (now Malaysian) Rubber Producers' Research Association,
a sister unit of RRIM.
When he returned to RRIM in early 1955 he was promoted to Research Officer and began
working on techniques of "grafting" latexinducing its extension chemically
and improving its processing by inhibiting physiochemical changes, particularly the
problems of oxidation and storage-hardening of natural rubber. During those years he kept
in close touch with what was happening internationally. He attended rubber conferences in
England and the USSR, and made a trip to Britain to contact research bodies and rubber
goods manufacturers to learn the problems of marketing natural rubber and to assess the
needs of the industrial consumer. Papers he wrote during these early years dealt with the
analysis of latex proteins and the concentration and properties of individual protein
components. He also published three studies on the aeration of natural rubber latex and
Promoted to Senior Polymer Chemist in 1959, SEKHAR formed the Polymer Chemistry Group
at the Institute and continued his work on oxidation of raw rubber, oil extension and
rubber modification. In 1964, he was named the first Malaysian head of the Chemical
Division. During these years (1959-1966) he was in great demand as a speaker at
international conferences, and he authored and coauthored a number of papers and patents.
Of the 16 patents he has taken out in his own name or with others, eight were obtained
during this period. They dealt with improved processing of natural rubber by
stabilization, masterbatching (i.e., adding specifically determined chemical ingredients
to latex in its crumbling, drying process to create a particular rubber grade or quality),
oil extension and polymerization.
On the basis of his extensive scientific contributions and his qualities of leadership
and persuasion, SEKHAR was chosen to become the first Malaysian and Asian director of the
Rubber Research Institute in 1966, the position he currently holds. He was only 36.
The work of the Institute is of immense importance to the wellbeing of the Malaysian
economy. Some 4.6 million acres of land 60 percent of the total agricultural land, is
planted to rubber. Sixty percent of this acreage belongs to smallholders who own five
acres or less. Rubber is the largest single export earner, bringing in M$1,260 million
(US$508 million; M$2.48 equaled US$1) in 1972, and it is the largest employer, influencing
directly or indirectly the lives of nearly one-third of the entire population. Rubber
products also lead in the manufacturing field.
SEKHARs appointment as Director not only confirmed his position in the scientific
forefront of the rubber industry, but cast him as well as senior educator, administrator
and salesman of Malaysian rubber. His speeches and papers reflect these added
responsibilities. Since 1966, they have dealt most often with problems of marketing
competition with synthetics, the need to meet consumer requirements and to develop
international cooperation, and with the overall activities and goals of RRIM. He has found
time to continue his research, however, and has taken out seven patents concerned with new
methods of rubber processing.
RRIM, established in 1925, is the largest research organization in the world devoted to
one product. Located in Kuala Lumpur, it has a senior staff of 160 and a general staff of
1,200. These include personnel located at the two experimental stationsSungei Buloh
(3,400 acres) and Kota Tinggi, Johore (3,000 acres). Its original task was to undertake
agricultural researchresearch concerned with planting, grafting, fertilization,
yield, disease and pest control. Its goal was to maximize production to meet the demands
of western industries Only in the postwar period, particularly in the years that SEKHAR
has been associated with it, has its emphasis changed to include the industrial aspects of
rubber production. As SEKHAR is fond of saying, the agricultural attitude toward rubber
production should end with tapping, from then on an industrial outlook should prevail. His
influence in creating this changed attitude is profound.
Today, the parent body of RRIM is the Malaysian Rubber Research and Development Board
(MRRDB) whose headquarters were opened in Kuala Lumpur in 1964. It finances RRIM in
Malaysia and the Malaysian Rubber Producers' Research Association (MRPRA) in the United
Kingdom, the former being the main research and development center, the latter an
auxiliary lab and concerned primarily with consumer problems. The MRRDB also operates the
Malaysian Rubber Bureau which has representatives in the 10 largest consuming countries.
The Board's budget is M$30 million (US$12 million) yearly. The money comes from the one
cent cess (tax) per pound on exported rubber. Therefore as the amount of rubber produced
and exported increases, the amount available for research on production and marketing
increases as well.
The rubber tree requires 70 to 100 inches of rain annually and a warm climate. It is
ideally suited to Malaysia, the Indonesian archipelago, Thailand, Ceylon, Vietnam and
Cambodiathe world's major rubber exporters in that order. The traditional tree grows
to be 40 to 50 feet tall, can be tapped after the fifth or sixth year and has an economic
life of 30 years or more. It is normally tapped alternate days, usually by cutting a
diagonal strip of barkabout 1/3 to 1/2 way around the tree at an angle of
25°through the cork and stone cell layers into the latex-bearing cortex. The tapper
must be careful not to cut through the cambium into the wood which would damage the tree.
Since the liquid latex flows up from the ground portion of the treenot down from the
topeach succeeding tap must be lower or on another part of the tree. It is several
years before the same spot can be retapped.
The latex is caught in a cup which is emptied into a larger container and taken to a
processing center where it is coagulated by adding formic acid to make the rubber
particles clot. This must be done within 24 hours or the latex will turn sour and
decompose. Pressed into sheets it is traditionally dried and smoked to preserve it, then
baled in 250-pound self-wrapped units. The quality of the rubber is judged visually on
color and lack of bubbles, criteria which have proved meaningless as color and
texture-have no bearing on content quality. Alternatively, the latex is partially
evaporated and shipped by bulk in tankers direct to the consuming country; this can be
done only by large estates which handle sufficient quantities of latex. The customary
system of tapping, sheet drying and visual grading has existed relatively unchanged from
the beginning of controlled planting until recent years. The changes that have been and
are currently taking place in these and other aspects of the natural rubber industry have,
for the most part, been researched and introduced by RRIM, spurred by the need to meet the
competition of synthetics in the areas of price and quality.
An obvious way to meet price competition is to lower costs by increasing yield per
acre. One way this can be done is by improving the stock. RRIM has approached the problem
of quality upgrading in three ways.
The first has been by gene selection. Although selective breeding had increased yield
per acre from its 1925 average of 250 pounds to 500 pounds by 1956, RRIM was able to
almost double that figure by 1960. Today the new trees developed at the Institute produce
2,000 pounds per acre consistently. One experimental plot has produced 4,000 pounds for
the past eight years with no discernable damage to the trees. (Tapping must continue for
12 years before a new tree can be recommended.) SEKHAR considers 9,000 pounds a
possibility, but this will probably occur as a result of tissue culture rather than
Genetic manipulation has succeeded in changing the architecture of the rubber tree.
Dwarf stock has been developed which is only 20 feet high instead of 40 to 50 feet; less
energy is required for tree growth, therefore more goes into making rubber. Work is also
being done on accelerating maturation. SEKHAR believes that it will be possible to create
trees that mature in three years instead of the present four to six.
Second, a faster method of breeding than by isolating desired genes is the tissue
culture process developed in the RRIM botany division. By putting the selected cells in a
proper medium in a test tube, tissues from different parts of the tree are allowed to
differentiate into plantlets. Shoots can thus be distributed instead of seeds. More
importantly the exact qualities desired can be selected and grown in this manner. It may
even be possible in the future, SEKHAR speculates, to introduce cells from other plants to
create wholly new or highly improved characteristics in rubber trees.
A third way to improve the stock is through tree surgery. RRIM has developed the
three-part tree by grafting onto a vigorous root seedling a high-latex yielding trunk and
onto the trunk a cone-shaped crown that is both wind and disease resistant.
These methods of improved breeding all require replanting. This is being done on the
larger estates. It is not feasible, however, for most smallholders to replace bearing
trees. Therefore, SEKHAR and others began to study methods of improving the yield of old
trees by increasing the flow of latex. In three papers published in 1971 they presented
"Novel Stimulants . . . in the Exploitation of Hevea." Ethrel (a derivative of
ethylene gas) was found to be very effective in prolonging flow when painted in a 1/2 inch
strip just below the tap cut. This is being done presently only on trees 15 or more years
old and the trees must receive prior fertilization. A five year study shows an almost
doubled yield with no detrimental effect to the trees. SEKHAR refers to this process as
"controlled hemophelia." The chemical delays the action of the clotting
mechanism to 6-10 hours instead of the normal three. The technique can be used on
"modern" as well as traditional trees.
Yield increase by stimulation is of great importance to small growers since it
eliminates replanting and allows them to elect either to double their yield or, by tapping
only every other day and maintaining the same yield, halve their labor costs. In either
case they increase their profits almost two-fold.
It is as important to meet synthetic competition in quality as in cost. SEKHARs
research from the beginning has been to seek ways to upgrade the quality of natural rubber
by stabilizing its viscosity, improving its storage qualities and developing a process
whereby its quality can be standardized and the standards assured.
A result was the Heveacrumb process, a mechano-chemical process which reduces latex to
crumbs for cleaning, drying and shipping. This crumblingand similar processes using
shredders, hammermills, pelletizers and granulatorsproduces a uniform, technically
gradable rubber. Extraneous matter (bark, dirt) is eliminated. Drying is controlled by
maintaining the humidity necessary to prevent oxidization and by adding castor oil which
also reduces the tendency of the rubber to crystallize at low temperatures. (The oil has
been found to have the added advantage of eliminating two of three processing steps for
the consumer and reducing the length of the third, thus increasing its cost
attractiveness.) The crumbs are pressed into 75 pound units, wrapped in polyethelene to
maintain cleanliness and loaded on oneton pallets to assure easy transit handling.
Heveacrumb can be ready for shipment in 8-24 hours instead of 7-10 days as for traditional
The development of Heveacrumb and new processing methods led to the establishment in
1965 of the Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR) Scheme which "revolutionized processing
and presentation of Malaysian rubber." SMR rubbers come in several recognized grades
depending upon purity, but all SMRs are government guaranteed and backed by RRIM testing
and inspection. SMR 5L and 5 have the lowest amount of contaminants, SMR 20 and 50
progressively more. For example, there can be 10 times as much dirt in SMR 50 as in SMR 5.
In five ways, then, the new standards and processes make natural rubber more
competitive with synthetics: technical grading, uniformity, cleanliness, improved quality
and ease in handling. In 1973 over 400,000 out of the 1,400,000 tons of rubber shipped
from Malaysia were SMR graded. The target for 1975 is one million.
Crumbled and scientifically mixed rubbers can also be designed to meet specific
consumer needs. SEKHAR recognized that tire manufacturers buy 65 percent of the world's
supply of natural rubber and that most SMR rubbers are cleaner and of higher quality than
they require. Therefore he took the step of creating a special SMR-tire rubber which
utilizes 30 percent latex (SMR 5), 30 percent field grade rubber (SMR 10-50) and 10
percent plasticiser. The plasticiserprocessing oiloffsets the cost of the
large proportion of high quality latex and creates a rubber that is easier to use, does
not harden on storage or readily freeze, is easy to process and has a low heat buildup.
SEKHAR anticipates future "masterbatching" with carbon black, oil and even
SMR tire rubber has another plus. It is easy to produce and can be mixed in the average
SMR factory, thereby coming within the production capabilities of the smallholder and the
small estate. Thus the consumer gets a rubber mixed to his needs which not only allows him
to cut down on his rubber inventory but also eliminates two or three costly manufacturing
steps, and the small producer moves into the industrialization process.
SEKHAR has long been concerned with the fact that smallholders own 60 percent of the
rubber land in Malaysia but produce only 45 percent of the rubber. He was therefore
philosophically and administratively involved in establishment in 1972 by the government
of the Rubber Industry Smallholders Development Authority (RISDA) which replaced the
Rubber Industry Replanting Board and the Smallholders Advisory Service of RRIM. This has
resulted in both a divisional reorganization of RRIM and a new orientation. Emphasis is
now on the problems and capabilities for change of the smallholders rather than of
the large estates to which RRIM had previously addressed itself since they were
financially and managerially more receptive to change. The Smallholders Project Research
Division has been set up whose role is to investigate the feasibility of the adoption of
various techniques and projects by the smallholder sector. It reports its findings to
RISDA which is responsible for the implementation of any agreed-to project for
recommendation. One proposal of the division is that smallholders, when they replant,
intercrop with corn, bananas, peanuts and vegetables in order to insure themselves an
income crop during the time between planting and tapping.
All RRIM training functions have been placed under the Training Division. This division
has two schools offering five-week courses in planting and production to smallholders and
rural youth. Two more are planned for the immediate future. Courses will continue to be
offered to estate personnel.
The Advisory Services Division, whose activities were previously confined to estates,
now offers services to all sectors of the industry. It is making a concerted effort to
enable smallholders "to take advantage of proper stimulation/fertilizer usage, crown
budding techniques, discriminate choice of clones and other horticultural practices.
" It also offers advice on SMR processing and factory management.
A major scheme under government considerationwith which RRIM is cooperating in
its present experimental stageis the organization of smallholders into a plantation
system. Most holdings, SEKHAR notes, are from three to five acres, an uneconomic size even
when yields are improved and rubber prices are high. He estimates that 10 acres are needed
to produce a minimum living wage of US$100-US$110 per family per month. In the plantation
scheme the smallholder will be asked to give up his right of land ownership in return for
proportional shares in an estate. He will continue to work his land under central
management and will be assured a steady income unlinked from the immediate price of
rubber. The experimental program being run by RRIM involves 20 families and 300 acres. An
evaluation of the project will be published at the end of the year. If it is favorable,
government plans include plantations of up to 15,000 acres.
Besides providing for joint planting, the plantation scheme provides for joint
processing. At present, there are a number of collection centers for smallholders and six
large central factories all initially established by the RRIM; by 1975 the government
hopes to have completed 21 more. These factories are now owned by the government Malaysian
Rubber Development Corporation Berhad (MARDEC) but RRIM maintains control over them
through inspection and product testing and SEKHAR has been a director of MARDEC from its
inception. All rubbers with SMR grading are tested at the RRIM Control Center at
Bangunanwhich operates a control laboratory, a commercial laboratory and inspection
and servicing unitsor at laboratories approved and supervised by this center.
In all the changes at the Institute SEKHAR has played a leading role, not only because
he is chief administrator, but because these changes are compatible with his basic
concerns. He believes that natural rubber must move with strength and assurance into the
future, using all the modern techniques available to it, improving the lot of the
producer, as well as marketing a quality product. It must be thought of and sold as an
industrial commodity, not as an agricultural raw material. It must shorten its marketing
chain. Whereas synthetics go directly from producer to consumer, most natural rubber still
"goes from small producer to village dealer to town dealer to city to consuming
country to distributor" before reaching the consumer. Not only must this chain be
shortened, he exhorts, but small growers must learn to cooperate with each other and with
the estates to create one marketing entity. Producing countries must also cooperate with
one another, agree to marketing standards and price, and offer the world market a standard
Natural rubber, SEKHAR points out, has intrinsic advantages over synthetics in this
environmentally conscious age; it is nonpolluting and renewable. Rubber trees improve
rather than pollute the atmosphere and, unlike petroleum, the main source of synthetics,
mature in a few years, not in a few geologic eras. A further advantage is that they can
become a major source of wood pulp, or the wood can be treated with steam under pressure
and hardened and be used for furniture and building. In the future, he muses, rubber may
become thought of as a by-product of the timber industry.
SEKHAR views his own life as optimistically as he views the future of natural rubber.
He recognizes that he has had "more ups than downs," and that he possesses an
intuitive gift for sensing when an invention or line of work is "going right."
This intuition has saved him from much wasted time and effort and has enabled him to
achieve much in a relatively short time.
His wife shares his positive outlook. At 21 he married Sukumari Nair, a childhood
sweetheart, and they have four children: Jayakumar (15), Gopinath (12), Sujatha (10) and
Vinod (5). Sukumari gave up her career as a teacher to devote herself to raising their
family, but she says her husband comes first in her life, even today.
When he travels, which is on the average of two and a half months a year, Sukumari
remains at home because of the children but "never reconciles herself to their
separation." She maintains a keen interest in his work and attends his lectures
whenever possible; he always invites her. He also uses her as "the testing
station" for his speeches, reading them to her beforehand. "If she, being a
layman, can understand what I'm saying, then I know I've succeeded in getting the message
across," he comments.
In 1964, SEKHAR was elected a Fellow of the Institution of the Rubber Industry (IRI)
and was chosen a Fellow of the Royal Institute of Chemistry the same year. He is President
of the Malaysian Institute of Chemistry and Past-President of the Malaysian Scientific
Association. In 1969, at age 39, he was the youngestand the first Malaysian and
Asianto receive the Colwyn Medal, the highest award of the IRI. It was given for
"conspicuous services of a scientific and technical character having an important
bearing on the rubber industry." The same year he received the Johan Setia Mankota
from His Majesty, the Supreme Head of Malaysia.
The Honorary Doctor of Science which SEKHAR received from the University of Singapore
in 1970 perhaps best expresses his contributions to date; it was given for his
"achievements in initiating and sustaining a great technological revolution in the
processing of natural rubber. "
Chang, Henry. "RRI Tyre Rubber a Boost to Industry," Malay Mail. Kuala
Lumpur. February 23, 1972.
Information Circular. Publications and Information Section, Rubber Research Institute
of Malaya. Kuala Lumpur. December 14, 1972.
"KL Plan to Take Over Small Rubber Holdings," Sunday Times. Kuala Lumpur.
September 24, 1972.
Malayan Rubber Fund Board. Natural Rubber: Nature + Science Serves Mankind. Kuala
Lumpur. (Fact Booklet). 19 p. N.d.
Ng, Anthony. "The Man Who Landed the $3,550-a-Month Job." Sunday Mail. Kuala
Lumpur. March 27, 1966.
Organizational Changes in RRIM. Publications and Information Section. Rubber Research
Institute of Malaya. Kuala Lumpur. April 25, 1973. (Mimeographed.)
Rubber Research Institute of Malaya. Kuala Lumpur: Rubber Research Institute of Malaya
24 p. N.d.
Sekhar, Balachandra ChakkingaL "Closing Address Delivered at the RRIM Planters'
Conference. Kuala Lumpur, July 13, 1971.
______. "Closing Address Delivered at the RRIM Planters' Conference." Kuala
Lumpur. July 20, 1973.
______. Malaysian Natural Rubber, New Presentation Processes. Kuala Lumpur: Rubber
Research Institute of Malaya, July 1971. 26 p.
______. "Natural Rubber in Malaysia." Malaysian Scientist. Kuala Lumpur. Vol.
______. "The New Image of Natural Rubber is Going to Permeate the International
Scene." Rubber Development. Kuala Lumpur. Vol. 24, no. 1, 1971.
______. Presentation made to Group Discussion. Transcript. Ramon Magsaysay Award
Foundation. Manila. September 4, 1973.
______."Speech on the Visit of H. E. Dzemal Bijedic, President of the Federal
Executive Council (Prime Minister) of Yugoslavia. . ." March 16, 1973. Kuala Lumpur.
"Substantial Changes in RRI Activities Says Sekhar," Malay Mail. Kuala
Lumpur. August 29, 1968.
Yuan, Chin Phong. "Test Tube Rubber Trees," Sunday Times. Kuala Lumpur. March
Letters from and interviews with colleagues and peers of Balachandra Chakkingal Sekhar.
Visits to RRIM.